This We Should Know,
“We Are All One”

This one message is so abundantly conveyed throughout history, so fundamental to all modes of knowing that it provides a foundational example, the very definition of, syncretism. Just as well, Epiphany (five symbols that represent the major religions of the modern world in one circle surrounded by the “All Seeing Eye”) is an Illustration of all in one. The symbol, also commonly known as the “Eye of Horus”, is a hieroglyph for the word ‘ujat’, meaning “The Whole One”.


 May your eye be single and your body be full of light.

Syncretism – an amalgamation of data from different sources of knowledge, constellating groups of meaning into one common meaning or a greater, broader, deeper meaning.

Any attempt to view the overall spectrum of accumulated human knowledge (a synoptic perspective) confronts the inquirer with this one truth.

One message from the micro to the macro of Physics. One and the same concept echoes from the ancient indigenous, shamanistic, root traditions (aka pegan religions) to the latter of the latter day Christians, their Abrahmic relatives and of course the New Age. It has historically been a guarded secret, known only to Archonian Elites.

From Beginning to end, which are (Alpha and Omega) one and the same, there is one undeniable truth rumbling throughout the Cronoscape.

At the feet of this capstone truth are truths of magnitude so vast as to break the bounds of belief. At this height of truth, belief is irrelevant. This truth can be known by all.

No truth surpasses this truth.

There is only one.

One scribe, one messenger, one message, one observer, one time, one space, one electron, one consciousness.

And all of these are one.


We are all one.

If all is one then all is within and none is without. If none is without then there is no other. One is with none therefore all too is alone, as one. So wholeness and aloneness are truly synonymous.

All one is also literally alone. No really check it out, via this example of how a synchronicity is often Etymological.

One of the major questions on the minds of 21st century thinkers is,
“Are we alone?”

Reiterating the question;
are we (humans) the only form of intelligent life in existence?

We are actually asking a three fold, multiple choice question. The three possible answers are two negatives, as in we are not alone. (which seem positive) and a positive one, as in we are alone (which seems negative). Interesting isn’t it? Because, as any grade school student knows, two negatives makes one positive.

A. There is a God
B. There ARE aliens out there.
C. We are all alone.

Taking a look at the etymology of the word “alone” we see that very same picture and are, by that marvel compelled to add the paradoxical answer,
D. All of the above.

alone – c.1300 contraction of all ane, from O.E. all ana “unaccompanied, all by oneself,” from all “all, wholly” (see all) + an “one” (see one). Similar compounds are found in German (allein) and Dutch (alleen).

(Note this word is interesting to compare to…)

an- (1) – privative prefix, from Gk. an-, “not, without,” related to ne- and cognate with Skt. an-, L. in-, Goth., O.E. un- (see un-).

Looking at it now through the etymology, we see it can mean two other things. First, the similar compound in German alters the meaning of the question to, “Are we all one?” Second, in the word “alien” and the German word “allein”, via a very simple anagram, we have a subjective connection. Thus morphing the question to, “Are we Alien(s)?” , the latter, in modern times most often to be asked in context of the popular Ancient Aliens theory narrative.

Are we aliens Hybrid with Cave men, by ETs, (whom we confused for gods) for gold mining slaves?

These three terms, “al an” (alone), all one and allein, within the etymology of alone refer us back to the three most popular answers to life, the universe and all. (The fourth is 42.)

A. Alone- Chance- evolution

B. All one- God – creation

C. Aliens – Hybrid – Panspermia

Are we alone?

Are we all one?

Are we alien?

This is probably not exactly what Plotinus had in mind when he wrote the final words in his sixth ennead (note Oneness was the foundation of Plotinus’ philosophy), but it is interesting how he seems to perfectly outline the archetypes of meaning stirring round this lonely thread of syncretism.


“This is the life of gods and of the godlike and blessed among men, liberation from the alien that besets us here, a life taking no pleasure in the things of earth, the passing of alone to Alone.”

The Sixth Ennead of Plotinus, Ninth Tractate, Part 11, Final paragraph (911)

He refers to our bodies as alien, and one could, perhaps should, read the last line as, the ascension from loneliness to Wholeness, aloneness to All oneness.

Tangent sync threads
A. 911 is an interesting number to be the end of this ennead, as it is relating the end of an eon, era, or age (Pisces) through the date of 9/11/2001 and the question of aloneness for which we are asking at the beginning of the 21st century, the chronological womb of the end of Pisces (Alpha the begining) and the beginning of Aquarius (Omega, the end). Plus, speaking of the Apocalypse (Apacalypsus) and naming Abaddon or Apollyon in chapter 9 verse 11, the book of Revelation (Bible’s End) manifests the same constellation of meanings, IE the end, aloneness via destruction, the demon of the abyss, a vast expanse of dark and silent loneliness (Movie – the Abyss).

B. The Greek word for alone is moneres, mono or monos and though you may not know it, there have been many references to the fish. Read about Manu in the upcoming blog posts for IXOYE.

So, now, the Greek word (SG1520) is “heis”, and though phonetically pronounced “hice”, from the translated spelling, of this word meaning “One”, we can clearly see that, as any mono theistic religion will proclaim,

Heis – one

He Is One.

This statement is the same as in what is arguably the most prominent verse in the Torah, from a Hebrew perspective.

Pearls of Oneness
in three words or less and no specific order;

All is one

In the heaven of Indra, there is said to be a network of pearls, so arranged that if you look at one you see all the others reflected in it.

The Tao of Physics p.292

I am you

One is all

All one

One all

… And had a wall greatand high, [and] had twelve gates, and atthe gates twelve angels, and nameswritten thereon, which are [the names] of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel…

Rev 21:12

One in all

All in one

Everything is one

All encompassing

One soul


… And the twelve gates [were] twelve pearls; everyseveral gate was of one pearl.

Rev 21:21

One mind

Single soul


Collective consciousness

And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.

Rev 21:23

Collective mind

Collective soul

Omni present


Universal thought

Universal mind

Universal soul


Greek: Mia, Henotes, heis, eimi.
English: First, Unity, one, I am.

One in Hebrew:
Echad, yachid, bad
Oneness Proclamations
from around the world, throughout history.


12. Unification Church. Sun Myung Moon, 4-14-57
When you pursue your original mind, you should be able to hear moral laws and see divinity in your mind’s eye. You should be able to feel and touch the heart of God with your mind


#7.   ” Take great pains to make yourselves friends of God who is in all parts of you, and is invisible and impalpable, that you give Him all your heart and body, and look that you be not proud in your heart, nor yet despair, nor be cowardly of spirit.  However that you be humble in your heart and have hope in Creator.  Be at peace with all, shame yourselves before none and to none be disrespectful; respect all, esteem all, defy no one, for no reason should you publicly affront any person.”

Hebrew/Old Testament

The World’s Religions by Houston Smith (WR)
There is a rabbinic saying to the effect that whenever a man or woman walks down the street he or she is preceded by an invisible choir of angels crying, “Make way, make way! Make way for the image of God.”

Gen 2:24
…two shall become one.

… thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.

#11. Deuteronomy 6:4
“Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One”

Psalm 82:6
“You are gods, children of the Most High, all of you.”

Greek New Testament.

Matt. 12:50
Whoever does God’s will is my brother and sister and mother.

Μatt 19:5
the two shall become one [hen] flesh”

Matt. 19:19
… love your neighbor as yourself.

Matt. 22:37-39
37Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. 38This is the first and great commandment. 39And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

Matt 26: 31-46
The Sheep and the Goats
31When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: 32And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: 33And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.
34Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:35For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: 36Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 37Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fedthee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink?38When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothedthee? 39Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 40And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.
41Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: 42For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink:43I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.44Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 45Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.46And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

Mark 3:34
And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! 35For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.

Mark 12:29-33
29And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: 30And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. 31And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. 32And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he: 33And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.

Luke 10:27
… Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.

And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

John 10:30
I and my father are one

John 10:34
Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?

John 17:20-23
“My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, 21 that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 22 I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one- 23 I in them and you in me-so that they may be brought to complete unity. Then the world will know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.

Rom 4-5
4For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office:5So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

Rom 12:5
5So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

1Cor 6:15
Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ?

1 Cor 8:6
6But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

1Cor 12:4-6
4Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. 5And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. 6And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.

1Cor 12:12
For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. 13For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

Gal 2:20
It is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me.

Gal 3:28
There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one [hen] in Christ Jesus. ”

Gal 5:14
For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

Ephesians 2:14
For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; 15Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; 16And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: 17And came and preached peace to you whicHouse were afar off, and to them that were nigh. 18For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father

Eph 4:3-6
3Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.4There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; 5One Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

Colossians 3:11
Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all, and in all.

James 2:8
… love thy neighbour as thyself …

The Nag Hammadi Library 
(Dead Sea Scrolls)

The Gospel of Thomas (GOT)

Jesus said, “If those who lead you say to you, ‘See, the kingdom is in the sky,’ then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, ‘It is in the sea,’ then the fish will precede you. Rather, the kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you will become known, and you will realize that it is you who are the sons of the living father. But if you will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it is you who are that poverty.”
4For many who are first will become last, and they will become one and the same.”

GOT 22
Jesus saw infants being suckled. He said to his disciples, “These infants being suckled are like those who enter the kingdom.”
They said to him, “Shall we then, as children, enter the kingdom?”
Jesus said to them, “When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the outside and the outside like the inside, and the above like the below, and when you make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male not be male nor the female female; and when you fashion eyes in the place of an eye, and a hand in place of a hand, and a foot in place of a foot, and a likeness in place of a likeness; then will you enter the kingdom.”
Jesus said, “I shall choose you, one out of a thousand, and two out of ten thousand, and they shall stand as a single one.”

GOT 25
Jesus said, “Love your brother like your soul, guard him like the pupil of your eye.”

GOT 61
…Jesus said to her, “I am he who exists from the undivided. I was given some of the things of my father.”

“I am your disciple.”

“Therefore I say, if he is destroyed, he will be filled with light, but if he is divided, he will be filled with darkness.”

GOT 67
Jesus said, “If one who knows the all still feels a personal deficiency, he is completely deficient.”

GOT 77
Jesus said, “It is I who am the light which is above them all. It is I who am the all. From me did the all come forth, and unto me did the all extend. Split a piece of wood, and I am there. Lift up the stone, and you will find me there.”

GOT 83
Jesus said, “The images are manifest to man, but the light in them remains concealed in the image of the light of the father. He will become manifest, but his image will remain concealed by his light.”

GOT 99
The disciples said to him, “Your brothers and your mother are standing outside.”
He said to them, “Those here who do the will of my father are my brothers and my mother. It is they who will enter the kingdom of my father.”

GOT 106
Jesus said, “When you make the two one, you will become the sons of man, and when you say, ‘Mountain, move away,’ it will move away.”

#45. GOT 108
Jesus said, “He who will drink from my mouth will become like me. I myself shall become he, and the things that are hidden will be revealed to him.”

GOT 113
His disciples said to him, “When will the kingdom come?”
“It will not come by waiting for it. It will not be a matter of saying ‘here it is’ or ‘there it is.’ Rather, the kingdom of the father is spread out upon the earth, and men do not see it.”
Simon Peter said to him, “Let Mary leave us, for women are not worthy of life.”
Jesus said, “I myself shall lead her in order to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you males. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the kingdom of heaven.”

The Thunder, Perfect Mind

For I am the first and the last. I am the honored one and the scorned one. I am the whore and the holy one. I am the wife and the virgin. I am and the daughter. I am the members of my mother. I am the barren one and many are her sons. I am she whose wedding is great, and I have not taken a husband. I am the midwife and she who does not bear. I am the solace of my labor pains. I am the bride and the bridegroom, and it is my husband who begot me. I am the mother of my father and the sister of my husband and he is my offspring. I am the slave of him who prepared me. I am the ruler of my offspring. But he is the one who begot me before the time on a birthday. And he is my offspring in (due) time, and my power is from him. I am the staff of his power in his youth, and he is the rod of my old age. And whatever he wills happens to me.I am the silence that is incomprehensible and the idea whose remembrance is frequent. I am the voice whose sound is manifold and the word whose appearance is multiple. I am the utterance of my name.

For I am knowledge and ignorance. I am shame and boldness. I am shameless; I am ashamed. I am strength and I am fear. I am war and peace. Give heed to me. I am the one who is disgraced and the great one.

I am the knowledge of my inquiry, and the finding of those who seek after me, and the command of those who ask of me, and the power of the powers in my knowledge of the angels, who have been sent at my word, and of gods in their seasons by my counsel, and of spirits of every man who exists with me, and of women who dwell within me. I am the one who is honored, and who is praised, and who is despised scornfully. I am peace, and war has come because of me. And I am an alien and a citizen. I am the substance and the one who has no substance.

I am control and the uncontrollable. I am the union and the dissolution. I am the abiding and I am the dissolution. I am the one below, and they come up to me.
I am the judgment and the acquittal.
I, I am sinless, and the root of sin derives from me. I am lust in (outward) appearance, and interior self-control exists within me.
I am the hearing which is attainable to everyone and the speech which cannot be grasped. I am a mute who does not speak, and great is my multitude of words.
Hear me in gentleness, and learn of me in roughness. I am she who cries out, and I am cast forth upon the face of the earth. I prepare the bread and my mind within. I am the knowledge of my name. I am the one who cries out, and I listen

For what is inside of you is what is outside of you, and the one who fashions you on the outside is the one who shaped the inside of you. And what you see outside of you, you see inside of you; it is visible and it is your garment. Hear me, you hearers and learn of my words, you who know me. I am the hearing that is attainable to everything; I am the speech that cannot be grasped. I am the name of the sound and the sound of the name. I am the sign of the letter and the designation of the division.

For I am the one who alone exists, and I have no one who will judge me. For many are the pleasant forms which exist in numerous sins, and incontinencies,and disgraceful passions, and fleeting pleasures, which (men) embrace until they become sober and go up to their resting place. And they will find me there, and they will live, and they will not die again.

The Trimorphic Protennoia

I am Protennoia, the Thought that dwells in the Light. I am the movement that dwells in the All, she in whom the All takes its stand, the first-born among those who came to be, she who exists before the All. She (Protennoia) is called by three names, although she dwells alone, since she is perfect. I am invisible within the Thought of the Invisible One. I am revealed in the immeasurable, ineffable (things). I am incomprehensible, dwelling in the incomprehensible. I move in every creature.

I am the life of my Epinoia that dwells within every Power and every eternal movement, and (in) invisible Lights and within the Archons and Angels and Demons, and every soul dwelling in Tartaros, and (in) every material soul. I dwell in those who came to be. I move in everyone and I delve into them all. I walk uprightly, and those who sleep, I awaken. And I am the sight of those who dwell in sleep.

I am the Invisible One within the All. It is I who counsel those who are hidden, since I know the All that exists in it. I am numberless beyond everyone. I am immeasurable, ineffable, yet whenever I wish, I shall reveal myself of my own accord. I am the head of the All. I exist before the All, and I am the All, since I exist in everyone.

I am a Voice speaking softly. I exist from the first. I dwell within the Silence that surrounds every one of them. And it is the hidden Voice that dwells within my, within the incomprehensible, immeasurable Thought, within the immeasurable Silence.

The Gospel of Truth

And as for him, them he found in himself, and him they found in themselves, that illimitable, inconceivable one, that perfect Father who made the all, in whom the All is, and whom the All lacks, since he retained in himself their perfection, which he had not given to the all. The Father was not jealous. What jealousy, indeed, is there between him and his members?

He has turned many from error. He went before them to their own places, from which they departed when they erred because of the depth of him who surrounds every place, whereas there is nothing which surrounds him. It was a great wonder that they were in the Father without knowing him and that they were able to leave on their own, since they were not able to contain him and know him in whom they were, for indeed his will had not come forth from him. For he revealed it as a knowledge with which all its emanations agree, namely, the knowledge of the living book which he revealed to the Aeons at last as his letters, displaying to them that these are not merely vowels nor consonants, so that one may read them and think of something void of meaning; on the contrary, they are letters which convey the truth. They are pronounced only when they are known. Each letter is a perfect truth like a perfect book, for they are letters written by the hand of the unity, since the Father wrote them for the Aeons, so that they by means of his letters might come to know the Father.

While his wisdom mediates on the logos, and since his teaching expresses it, his knowledge has been revealed. His honor is a crown upon it. Since his joy agrees with it, his glory exalted it. It has revealed his image. It has obtained his rest. His love took bodily form around it. His trust embraced it. Thus the logos of the Father goes forth into the All, being the fruit of his heart and expression of his will. It supports the All. It chooses and also takes the form of the All, purifying it, and causing it to return to the Father and to the Mother, Jesus of the utmost sweetness. The Father opens his bosom, but his bosom is the Holy Spirit. He reveals his hidden self which is his son, so that through the compassion of the Father the Aeons may know him, end their wearying search for the Father and rest themselves in him, knowing that this is rest. After he had filled what was incomplete, he did away with form. The form of it is the world, that which it served. For where there is envy and strife, there is an incompleteness; but where there is unity, there is completeness. Since this incompleteness came about because they did not know the Father, so when they know the Father, incompleteness, from that moment on, will cease to exist. As one’s ignorance disappears when he gains knowledge, and as darkness disappears when light appears, so also incompleteness is eliminated by completeness. Certainly, from that moment on, form is no longer manifest, but will be dissolved in fusion with unity. For now their works lie scattered. In time unity will make the spaces complete. By means of unity each one will understand itself. By means of knowledge it will purify itself of diversity with a view towards unity, devouring matter within itself like fire and darkness by light, death by life.

This is the manifestation of the Father and his revelation to his Aeons. He revealed his hidden self and explained it. For who is it who exists if it is not the Father himself?

Thus they were ignorant of the Father; he is the one whom they did not see. Since there had been fear and confusion and a lack of confidence and doublemindness and division, there were many illusions which were conceived by him, the foregoing, as well as empty ignorance – as if they were fast asleep and found themselves a prey to troubled dreams.

Nothing happens without him, nor does anything occur without the will of the Father. But his will is incomprehensible. His will is his mark, but no one can know it, nor is it possible for them to concentrate on it in order to possess it. But that which he wishes takes place at the moment he wishes it – even if the view does not please anyone: it is God`s will. For the Father knows the beginning of them all as well as their end. For when their end arrives, he will question them to their faces. The end, you see, is the recognition of him who is hidden, that is, the Father, from whom the beginning came forth and to whom will return all who have come from him. For they were made manifest for the glory and the joy of his name.

And the name of the Father is the Son. It is he who, in the beginning, gave a name to him who came forth from him – he is the same one – and he begat him for a son. He gave him his name which belonged to him – he, the Father, who possesses everything which exists around him. He possess the name; he has the son.

The Gospil of Philip

Light and Darkness, life and death, right and left, are brothers of one another. They are inseparable. Because of this neither are the good good, nor evil evil, nor is life life, nor death death. For this reason each one will dissolve into its earliest origin.

Truth is one single thing; it is many things and for our sakes to teach about this one thing in love through many things.

It is necessary to rise in this flesh, since everything exists in it.

“The Father” and “the Son” are single names; “the Holy Spirit” is a double name. For they are everywhere: they are above, they are below; they are in the concealed, they are in the revealed. The Holy Spirit is in the revealed: it is below. It is in the concealed: it is above.

It is not possible for anyone to see anything of the things that actually exist unless he becomes like them. This is not the way with man in the world: he sees the sun without being a sun; and he sees the heaven and the earth and all other things, but he is not these things. This is quite in keeping with the truth. But you saw something of that place, and you became those things. You saw the Spirit, you became spirit. You saw Christ, you became Christ. You saw the Father, you shall become Father. So in this place you see everything and do not see yourself, but in that place you do see yourself – and what you see you shall become.

Those who are separated will unite […] and will be filled.

The Book of Thomas The Contender

For he who has not known himself has known nothing, but he who has known himself has at the same time already achieved knowledge about the depth of the all.

For when you come forth from the sufferings and passions of the body, you will receive rest from the good one, and you will reign with the king, you joined with him and he with you, from now on, for ever and ever, Amen.”

The Acts of John
only seer of all, who art in all and everywhere present and containing all things and filling all things: Christ Jesu, God, Lord,

Hippolytus: Refutation of All Heresies

All things, therefore, he says, when unbegotten, are in us potentially, not actually, as the grammatical or geometrical (art).

–I and you, one; you, before me; I, that which is after you. This, he says, is one power divided above (and) below, generating itself, making itself grow, seeking itself, finding itself, being mother of itself, father of itself, sister of itself, spouse of itself, daughter of itself, son of itself, mother, father, a unit, being a root of the entire circle of existence.

So it is, therefore, that likewise what is manifested from these, being unity, is discovered (to be) duality, an hermaphrodite having the female in itself. This, (therefore,) is Mind (subsisting) in Intelligence; and these are separable one from the other, (though both taken together) are one, (and) are discovered in a state of duality.”

For in the Unbegotten One, he says, all things exist simultaneously,


7. Islam. 40 Hadith of an-Nawawi 6
Is it not the fact that there is in the body a clot of blood which, if it
is in good condition, the whole body is, too; and if it is in rotten
condition, so too is the whole body? Is not this the heart?

Sur 34:3
not the weight of an atom becomes absent from Him, in the heavens or in the earth, and neither less than that nor greater, but (all) is in a clear book

Sur 4:152 And those who believe in Allah and His apostles and do not make a distinction between any of them — Allah will grant them their rewards; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Sahih International: He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is, of all things, Knowing.

Pickthall: He is the First and the Last, and the Outward and the Inward; and He is Knower of all things.

Yusuf Ali: He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things.

Shakir: He is the First and the Last and the Ascendant (over all) and the Knower of hidden things, and He is Cognizant of all things.

Muhammad Sarwar: He is the First, the Last, the Manifest, and the Unseen and He knows all things.

Mohsin Khan: He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him). And He is the All-Knower of every thing.

Arberry: He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward; He has knowledge of everything.”


The World’s Religions by Houston Smith
This one, “The Tale of the Sands,” relates to their doctrine of fana, the transcending, in God, of the finite self.A stream, from its source in far-off mountains, passing through every kind and description of countryside, at last reached the sands of the desert. Just as it had crossed every other barrier, the stream tried to cross this one, but it found that as fast as it ran into the sand, its waters disappeared.It was convinced, however, that its destiny was to cross this desert, and yet there was no way. Now a hidden voice, coming from the desert itself, whispered: “The Wind crosses the desert, and so can the stream.”The stream objected that it was dashing itself against the sand, and only getting absorbed: that the wind could fly, and this was why it could cross a desert.”By hurtling in your own accustomed way you cannot get across. You will either disappear or become a marsh. You must allow the wind to carry you over, to your destination.”But how could this happen? “By allowing yourself to be absorbed in the wind.”. This idea was not acceptable to the stream. After all, it had never been absorbed before. It did not want to lose its individuality. {Pg266} And, once having lost it, how was one to know that it could ever be regained?”The wind,” said the sand, “performs this function. It takes up water, carries it over the desert, and then lets it fall again. Falling as rain, the water again becomes a river.””How can I know that this is true?” “It is so, and if you do not believe it, you cannot become more than a  , and even that could take many, many years. And it certainly is not the same as a stream.””But can I not remain the same stream that I am today?””You cannot in either case remain so,” the whisper said. “Your essential part is carried away and forms a stream again. You are called what you are even today because you do not know which part of you is the essential one.”When it heard this, certain echoes began to arise in the thoughts of the stream. Dimly it remembered a state in which it-or some part of it?-had been held in the arms of a wind. It also remembered-or did it?-that this was the real thing, not necessarily the obvious thing, to do.And the stream raised its vapor into the welcoming arms of the wind, which gently and easily bore it upwards and along, letting it fall softly as soon as they reached the roof of a mountain, many, many, miles away. And because it had its doubts, the stream was able to remember and record more strongly in its mind the details of the experience. It reflected, “Yes, now I have learned my true identity.”The stream was learning. But the sands whispered: “We know, because we see it happen day after day: and because we, the sands, extend from the riverside all the way to the mountain.”And that is why it is said that the way in which the stream of Life is to continue on its journey is written in the Sands. 42

The World’s Religions by Houston Smith
¿…To avoid it Sufis developed their doctrine of fana-extinction-as the logical term of their quest. Not that their consciousness was to be extinguished. It was their self-consciousness-their consciousness of themselves as separate selves replete with their private personal agendas-that was to be ended. If the ending was complete, they argued, when they looked inside the dry shells of their now-emptied selves they would find nothing but God. A Christian mystic put this point by writing:God, whose boundless love and joyAre present everywhere;He cannot come to visit youUnless you are not there. (Angelus Silesius)Al-Hallaj’s version was: “I saw my Lord with the eye of the Heart. I said: ‘Who are you?’ He answered: ‘You.'”As a final example of the Sufis’ extravagant use of symbolism, we can note the way they tightened the creedal assertion “There is no god but God” to read, “There is nothing but God.” To exoteric Muslims this again sounded silly, if not blasphemous: silly because there are obviously lots of things-tables and chairs-that are not God; blasphemous because the mystic reading seemed to deny God as Creator. But the Sufis’ intent was to challenge the independence that people normally ascribe to things. Monotheism to them meant more than the theoretical point that there are not two Gods; that they considered obvious. Picking up on the existential meaning of theism-God is that to which we give (or should give) ourselves-they agreed that the initial meaning of “no god but God” is that we should give ourselves to nothing but God. But we do not catch the full significance of the phrase, they argued, until we see that we do give ourselves to other things when we let them occupy us as objects in their own right; objects that have the power to interest or repel us by being simply what they are. To think of light as caused by electricity-by electricity only and sufficiently, without asking where electricity comes from-is in principle to commit shirk; for because only God is self-sufficient, to consider other things as such is to liken them to God and thereby ascribe to him rivals.

Arberry, A.J., The Doctrine of the Sufis,
“Al Hallaj  says about God:
“Before” does not outstrip Him,
“after” does not interrupt Him
“of” does not vie with Him for precedence
“from” does not accord with Him
“to” does not join with Him
“in” does not inhabit Him
“when” does not stop Him
“if” does not consult with Him
“over” does not overshadow
Him “under” does not support Him
“opposite” does not face Him
“with” does not press Him
“behind” does not limit Him
“previous” does not display Him
“after” does not cause Him to pass away
“all” does not unite Him
“is” does not bring Him into being
“is not” does not deprive Him from Being.
Concealment does not veil Him
His pre-existence preceded time,
His being preceded non-being,
His eternity preceded limit.
If thou sayest ‘when’,
His existing has outstripped time;
If thou sayest ‘before’, before is after Him;
If thou sayest ‘he’, ‘h’ and ‘e’ are His creation;
If thou sayest ‘how’, His essence is veiled from description;
If thou sayest ‘where’, His being preceded space; If thou sayest ‘ipseity’ (ma huwa),
His ipseity (huwiwah) is apart from things.
Other than He cannot be qualified by two (opposite) qualities at one time; yet With Him they do not create opposition.
He is hidden in His manifestation,
manifest in His concealing.
He is outward and inward,
near and far; and in this respect He is
removed beyond the resemblance of creation.
He acts without contact,
instructs without meeting,
guides without pointing.
Desires do not conflict with Him,
thoughts do not mingle with Him:
His essence is without qualification (takyeef),
His action without effort (takleef).


11. Baha’i Faith. Gleanings from the Writings of Baha’u’llah 132
The Purpose of the one true God, exalted be His glory, in revealing Himself unto men is to lay bare those gems that lie hidden within the mine of their true and inmost selves.

The Hidden Words
Part 1
Turn thy sight unto thyself, that thou
mayest find Me standing within thee, mighty, powerful and self-subsisting.

O SON OF MAN! Deny not My servant should he ask anything from thee, for
his face is My face; be then abashed before Me.

O CHILDREN OF MEN! Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust?
That no one should exalt himself over the other. Ponder at all times in
your hearts how ye were created. Since We have created you all from one
same substance it is incumbent on you to be even as one soul, to walk with
the same feet, eat with the same mouth and dwell in the same land, that
from your inmost being, by your deeds and actions, the signs of oneness
and the essence of detachment may be made manifest. Such is My counsel to
you, O concourse of light! Heed ye this counsel that ye may obtain the
fruit of holiness from the tree of wondrous glory.


Proclus (412–485 AD) wrote that the adyton of the temple of Neith in Sais (of which nothing now remains) carried the following inscription:

“I am the things that are, that will be, and that have been. No one has ever laid open the garment by which I am concealed. The fruit which I brought forth was the sun.[5]”


The World’s Religions by Houston Smith
“O Lord, forgive three sins that are due to my human limitations:Thou art everywhere, but I worship you here;Thou art without form, but I worship you in these forms;Thou needest no praise, yet I offer you these prayers and salutations.Lord, forgive three sins that are due to my human limitations.
(A Hindu Prayer)

Pg75 WR
There was a man who worshipped Shiva but hated all other dieties.
One day Shiva appeared to him and said, “I shall never be pleased with you so long as you hate the other gods.” But the man was inexorable. After a few days Shiva again appeared to him and said, “I shall never be pleased with you so long as you hate.” The man kept silent. After a few days Shiva again appeared to him. This time one side of his body was that of Shiva, and the other side that of Vishnu. The man was half pleased and half displeased. He laid his offerings on the side representing Shiva, and did not offer anything to the side representing Vishnu. Then Shiva said, “Your bigotry is unconquerable. I, by assuming this dual aspect, tried to convince you that all gods and goddesses are but various aspects of the one Absolute Brahman.

Pg? Tao of physics
This that people say, ‘Worship this god! Worship that god!–one after another–this is his [Brahman’s] creation indeed! And he himself is all the gods. 5

Pg83 Tao of physics
The basic recurring theme in Hindu mythology is the creation of the world by the self-sacrifice of God–‘sacrifice’ in the original sense of ‘making sacred’–whereby God becomes the world which, in the end, becomes again God. This creative activity of the Divine is called lila , the play of God, and the world is seen as the stage of the divine play. Like most of Hindu mythology, the myth of lila has a strong magical flavour.

1. Hinduism. Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.
That which is the finest essence–this whole world has that as its soul. That is Reality. That is the Self (Atman). That art thou.

Bagivad Gita

Chapter 2: Transcendental Knowledge

This Atma cannot be cut, burned, wetted, or dried up. It is eternal, all pervading, unchanging, immovable, and primeval.

O Arjuna, the Atma that dwells in the body of all (beings) is eternally indestructible. Therefore, you should not mourn for any body.

One who abandons all desires and becomes free from longing and the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘my’ attains peace.

O Arjuna, this is the Braahmee or superconscious state. Attaining this (state), one is no longer deluded. Gaining this state, even at the end of one’s life, a person attains oneness with the Supreme.

Chapter 3: Path of Karma Yoga

All works are being done by the Gunas (or the energy and power) of nature, but due to delusion of ego people assume themselves to be the doer.

Chapter 4: Path of Renunciation with Knowledge

The Supreme Lord said: Both you and I have taken many births. I remember them all, O Arjuna, but you do not remember.

Though I am eternal, imperishable, and the Lord of all beings; yet I (voluntarily) manifest by controlling My own material nature using My Yoga-Maya. (See also 10.14) (4.06) (Yoga-Maya is same as Maya; the supernatural, extraordinary, and mystic power of Brahman. The word Maya means unreal, illusory, or deceptive image of the creation. Due to the power of Maya one consider the universe as existent and distinct from Brahman, the Supreme spirit. Brahman is invisible potential energy; Maya is kinetic energy, the force of action. They are inseparable like fire and heat. Maya is a metaphor used to explain the visible world or Jagat to common people.)

The one who truly understands My transcendental birth and activities (of creation, maintenance, and dissolution), is not born again after leaving this body and attains My abode, O Arjuna. (4.09)

Freed from attachment, fear, and anger; fully absorbed in Me, taking refuge in Me, and purified by the fire of Self-knowledge, many have attained Me. (4.10)

Brahman is the oblation. Brahman is the clarified butter. The oblation is poured by Brahman into the fire of Brahman. Brahman shall be realized by the one who considers everything as (a manifestation or) an act of Brahman.

Chapter 5: Path of Renunciation

But Samnyasa, O Arjuna, is difficult to attain without Karma-yoga. A Karma-yogi sage quickly attains Brahman. (See also 4.31, and 4.38)

A Karma-yogi whose mind is pure, whose mind and senses are under control, and who sees one and the same Self in all beings, is not bound (by Karma) though engaged in work. (5.07)

An enlightened person looks at a learned and humble Braahmana, an outcast, even a cow, an elephant, or a dog with an equal eye.

One who finds happiness with the Self, who rejoices the Self within, and who is illuminated by the Self-knowledge; such a yogi becomes one with Brahman and attains supreme nirvana.

Chapter 6: Path of Meditation

Thus, by always keeping the mind fixed on the Self, the yogi whose mind is subdued attains peace of the Supreme nirvana by uniting with Me.

One feels infinite bliss that is perceivable only through the intellect, and is beyond the reach of the senses. After realizing Brahman, one is never separated from absolute reality.

Because of perceiving the (same) Self (abiding) in all beings and all beings (abiding) in the (same) Self; a yogi, who is in union with the Self, sees everybeing with an equal eye. (See also 4.35)

Those who see Me in everything and see everything in Me, are not separated from Me and I am not separated from them. (6.30)

The non-dualists, who adore Me as abiding in all beings, abide in Me irrespective of their mode of living. (6.31)

One is considered the best yogi who regards every being like oneself, and who can feel the pain and pleasures of others as one’s own, O Arjuna. (6.32)

Chapter 7: Self-Knowledge and Self-Realisation

Know that all creatures have evolved from this twofold energy, and Brahman is the origin as well as the dissolution of the entire universe. (See also 13.26)

O Arjuna, there is nothing higher than Brahman. Everything in the universe is strung on Brahman like jewels on the thread of a necklace. (7.07)

O Arjuna, I am the sapidity in the water, I am the radiance in the sun and the moon, the sacred syllable OM in all the Vedas, the sound in the ether, and the manhood in men. (7.08)

I am the sweet fragrance in the earth. I am the heat in the fire, the life in all living beings, and the austerity in the ascetics. (7.09)

O Arjuna, know Me to be the eternal seed of all creatures. I am the intelligence of the intelligent, and the brilliance of the brilliant. (See also 9.18 and 10.39) (7.10)

I am the strength, that is devoid of lust and attachment, of the strong. I am the lust (or Kaama) in human beings that is in accord with Dharma (for procreation), O Arjuna. (7.11)

Know that the three Gunas, Saattvika, Raajasika, and Taamasika, also emanate from Me. I am not in (or dependent on) the Gunas, but the Gunas are in (or dependent on) Me. (See also 9.04 and 9.05) (7.12)

Human beings are deluded by these three Gunas of nature; therefore, they do not know Me who is above these Gunas and eternal. (7.13)

Among them the wise one, who is ever united with Me and whose devotion is single minded, is the best. Because, I am very dear to the wise, and the wise is very dear to Me.

All these (seekers) are indeed noble, but I regard the wise as My very Self, because the one who is steadfast becomes one with the Supreme Being. (See also 9.29) (7.18)

After many births the wise ones resort (or surrender) to Me by realizing that everything is (a manifestation of) Brahman indeed. Such a great soul is very rare. (7.19)

All beings in this world are in utter ignorance due to the delusion of dualities born of likes and dislikes, O Arjuna.

Persons of virtuous (or unselfish) deeds, whose Karma has come to an end, become free from the delusion of dualities and worship Me with firm resolve. (7.28)

Those who strive for freedom from (the cycles of birth) old age and death by taking refuge in Me know Brahman, the individual self, and Karma in its entirety. (7.29)

The steadfast persons, who know that Brahman is everything, the Adhibhoota, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiyajna, remember Me even at the time of death (and attain Me). (See also ¿) (7.30)

Chapter 8: Imperishable Brahman

The one who meditates on Brahman as the omniscient, the oldest, the controller, smaller than the smallest (and bigger than the biggest), the sustainer of everything, the inconceivable, the self luminous like the sun, and as transcendental or beyond the material reality;…

Chapter 9: Supreme Knowledge and the Big Mystery

This entire universe is pervaded by Me, the unmanifest Brahman. All beings depend on (or remain in) Me (like a chain depends on gold). I do not depend on them. (See also 7.12) (From a Dvaitic or dualistic view point, waves depend on the ocean, the ocean does not depend on the waves. But, from a Advaitic or non-dualistic point of view, as stated in verse 9.05 below, the question of wave abiding in the ocean or the ocean abiding in the wave does not arise, because there is no wave or ocean. It is water only. Similarly, everything is a manifestation of Brahman only. (Gita 7.19))

And yet beings, in reality, do not remain in Me. Look at the power of My divine mystery. Though the sustainer and creator of all beings, I do not remain in them. (In reality, the chain does not depend on gold; the chain is nothing but gold. Also, matter and energy are different as well as non-different). (9.05)

Consider that all beings remain in Me (without any contact or without producing any effect) as the mighty wind, moving everywhere, eternally remains in space. (9.06)

All beings merge into My Prakriti at the end of a Kalpa (or a cycle of 4.32 billion years), O Arjuna, and I create (or manifest) them again at the beginning of the next Kalpa. (9.07)

Some worship Me by knowledge sacrifice. Others worship the infinite as the one in all (or non-dual), as the master of all (or dual), and in various other ways.

I am the ritual, I am the Yajna, I am the offering, I am the herb, I am the mantra, I am the Ghee, I am the fire, and I am the oblation. (See also 4.24) (9.16)

I am the supporter of the universe, the father, the mother, and the grandfather. I am the object of knowledge, the purifier, the sacred syllable OM, and also the Rig, the Yajur, and the Sama Vedas. (9.17)

I am the goal, the supporter, the Lord, the witness, the abode, the refuge, the friend, the origin, the dissolution, the foundation, the substratum, and the imperishable seed. (See also 7.10 and 10.39) (9.18)

I give heat, I send as well as withhold the rain, I am immortality as well as death, I am also both the Sat and the Asat, O Arjuna. (Brahman is everything, See also 13.12) (9.19)

Worshippers of the demigods go to the demigods, the worshippers of the ancestors go to the ancestors, and the worshippers of the ghosts go to the ghosts, but My devotees come to Me (and are not born again). (See also 8.16)

Chapter 10: Manifestation of the Absolute

Discrimination, knowledge, non-delusion, forgiveness, truthfulness, control over the mind and senses, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, fearlessness

Nonviolence, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame, and ill fame; all these diverse qualities in human beings arise from Me alone. (10.05)

The seven great sages and four ancient Manus, from whom all these creatures of the world were born, originated from My potential energy. (10.06)

One who truly understands My manifestations and yogic powers, is united with Me in unswerving devotion. There is no doubt about this. (10.07)

I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. Understanding this, the wise ones worship Me with love and devotion. (10.08)

Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the supreme abode, the supreme purifier, the eternal divine spirit, the primal God, the unborn, and the omnipresent.

#114. 10.16
(Therefore), You alone are able to fully describe Your own divine glories, the manifestations, by which You exist pervading all the universe.

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, now I shall explain to you My prominent divine manifestations, because My manifestations are endless.

O Arjuna, I am the Atma abiding in the heart of all beings. I am also the beginning, the middle, and the end of all beings. (10.20)

I am Vishnu among the (twelve) sons of Aditi, I am the radiant sun among the luminaries, I am Marici among the gods of wind, I am the moon among the stars. (10.21)

I am the Sama Veda among the Vedas; I am Indra among the Devas; I am the mind among the senses; I am the consciousness in living beings. (10.22)

I am Shiva among the Rudras; (I am) Kubera among the Yakshas and demons; I am the fire among the Vasus; and I am Meru among the mountain peaks. (10.23)

Among the priests, O Arjuna, know Me to be the chief, Brihaspati. Among the army generals, I am Skanda; I am the ocean among the bodies of water. (10.24)

I am Bhrigu among the great sages; I am the monosyllable OM among the words; I am Japa among the Yajna; and I am the Himalaya among the immovables. (10.25)

I am the Peepal tree among the trees, Narada among the sages, Chitraaratha among the Gandharvas, and sage Kapila among the Siddhas. (10.26)

Know Me as Uchchaihshrava, born at the time of churning the ocean for getting the nectar, among the horses; Airaavata among the elephants; and the King among men. (10.27)

I am thunderbolt among the weapons, Kaamadhenu among the cows, and the cupid among the procreators. Among the serpents, I am Vaasuki. (10.28)

I am Sheshanaaga among the Naagas, I am Varuna among the water gods, and Aryamaa among the manes. I am Yama among the controllers. (10.29)

I am Prahlaada among Diti’s progeny, time or death among the healers, lion among the beasts, and the Garuda among birds. (10.30)

I am the wind among the purifiers, and Lord Rama among the warriors. I am the shark among the fishes, and the Ganges among the rivers. (10.31)

I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of the creation, O Arjuna. Among the knowledge I am knowledge of the supreme Self. I am logic of the logician. (10.32)

I am the letter “A” among the alphabets, among the compound words I am the dual compound, I am the endless time, I am the sustainer of all, and have faces on all sides (or I am omniscient). (10.33)

I am the all-devouring death, and also the origin of future beings. Among the feminine nouns I am fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intellect, resolve, and forgiveness. (10.34)

I am Brihatsaama among the hymns. I am Gaayatri among the mantras, I am Maargsirsha (November-December) among the months, I am the spring among the seasons. (10.35)

I am the fraud of the gambler; I am the splendor of the splendid; I am victory (of the victorious); I am resolution (of the resolute); I am the goodness of the good. (10.36)

I am Vaasudeva among the Vrishni, Arjuna among the Paandavas, Vyaasa among the sages, and Ushanaa among the poets. (10.37)

I am the power of rulers, the statesmanship of the seekers of victory, I am silence among the secrets, and the Self-knowledge of the knowledgeable. (10.38)

I am the origin or seed of all beings, O Arjuna. There is nothing, animate or inanimate, that can exist without Me. (See also 7.10 and 9.18) (10.39)

There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjuna. This is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My divine manifestations. (10.40)

Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power; know that to be a manifestation of a fraction of My splendor. (10.41)

What is the need for this detailed knowledge, O Arjuna? I continually support the entire universe by a small fraction of My energy. (10.42)

Chapter 11: Vision of the Cosmic Form

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, behold My hundreds and thousands of multifarious divine forms of different colors and shapes.

See the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Ashvins, and the Maruts. Behold, O Arjuna, many wonders never seen before. (11.06)

O Arjuna, now behold the entire creation; animate, inanimate, and whatever else you like to see; all at one place in My body. (11.07)

Arjuna said: O Lord, I see in Your body all the gods and multitude of beings, all sages, celestial serpents, Lord Shiva as well as Lord Brahmaa seated on the lotus.

O Lord of the universe, I see You everywhere with infinite form, with many arms, stomachs, faces, and eyes. Neither do I see the beginning nor the middle nor the end of Your Universal Form. (11.16)

I see You with infinite power, without beginning, middle, or end; with many arms, with the sun and the moon as Your eyes, with Your mouth as a blazing fire whose radiance is scorching all the universe.

The entire space between heaven and earth is pervaded by You alone in all directions. Seeing Your marvelous and terrible form, the three worlds are trembling with fear, O Lord. (11.20)

My salutations to You from front and from behind. O Lord, my obeisances to You from all sides. You are infinite valor and the boundless might. You pervade everything, and therefore You are everywhere and in everything.

Chapter 13: Creation and the Creator

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, this body (the miniature universe) may be called the field or creation. One who knows the creation is called the creator by the seers of truth.

Having hands and feet everywhere; having eyes, head, and face everywhere; having ears everywhere; the creator exists in the creation by pervading everything.

He is the perceiver of all sense objects without the senses; unattached, yet the sustainer of all; devoid of the Gunas, yet the enjoyer of the Gunas. (13.14)

He is inside as well as outside all beings, animate and inanimate. He is incomprehensible because of His subtlety. He is very near as well as far away. (13.15)

Undivided, yet appears as if divided in beings; He, the object of knowledge, is the creator, sustainer, and destroyer of (all) beings. (13.16)

The light of all lights, He is said to be beyond darkness. He is the knowledge, the object of knowledge, and seated in the hearts of all beings, He is to be realized by the knowledge. (13.17)

Whatever is born, animate or inanimate, know them to be (born) from the union of the field (or Prakriti) and the field knower (or Purusha), O Arjuna. (See also 7.06)

The one who sees the imperishable Supreme Lord dwelling equally within all perishable beings truly sees.
Seeing the same Lord existing in everybeing, one does not injure the other self and thereupon attains the Supreme goal. (13.28)
Those who perceive that all works are done by the (Gunas of) Prakriti alone, and thus they are not the doer, they truly understand. (See also 3.27, 5.09, and 14.19) (13.29)
When one perceives diverse variety of beings resting in One and spreading out from That alone, then one attains Brahman. (13.30)
The imperishable Supreme Self, being beginningless and without Gunas, though dwelling in the body (as Atma) neither does anything nor gets tainted, O Arjuna. (13.31)
As the all-pervading ether is not tainted because of its subtlety, similarly the Self, seated in everybody, is not tainted. (13.32)
O Arjuna, just as one sun illuminates this entire world, similarly the creator illumines (or gives life to) the entire creation. (13.33)

Chapter 15:Supreme Spirit

15.9 The Lord takes His stand upon hearing, sight, touch, taste, smell,
and upon the mind.
He enjoys what mind and senses enjoy.
Deluded men cannot trace His course.
Only the eye of wisdom sees Him
clothed in the states of existence, going forth, being in the body, or taking in experience.
Disciplined men can also make an effortand see His presence in themselves
The light that coming from the sun illumines the whole world; and which is in the moon, and in the fire; know that light to be Mine.
(See also 13.17 and 15.06)
Entering the earth I support all beings with My energy; becoming the sap-giving moon I nourish all the plants. (15.13)
Becoming the digestive fire, I remain in the body of all living beings; uniting with vital breaths, the Prana and Apana, I digest all four varieties of food; and (15.14)
I am seated in the hearts of all beings. The memory, knowledge, and the removal of doubts and wrong notions (about the Self) by reasoning or in Samadhi come from Me. I am verily that which is to be known by (the study of) all the Vedas. I am, indeed, the author of the Vedanta and the knower of the Vedas. (See also 6.39) (15.15)

Chapter 16: Divine and Demonic Qualities

Clinging to egoism, power, arrogance, lust, and anger; these malicious people hate Me (who dwells) in their own body and others’ bodies.

Chapter 17: Threefold Faith

Chapter 18: Nirvana through Renunciation
“Senselessly torturing the elements in their body and also Me who dwell within the body; know these ignorant persons to be of demonic nature.”

Knowledge by which one sees a single imperishable reality in all beings as undivided in the divided; such knowledge is considered to be Saattvika (good.)
Knowledge by which one sees different realities of various types among all beings as separate from one another, consider that knowledge to be Raajasika (bad.) (18.21)

By devotion one truly understand what and who I am in essence. Having known Me in essence, one immediately merges into Me. (See also 5.19)

The Lord abides in the heart of all beings, O Arjuna, causing all beings to act (or work out their Karma) by His power of Maya as if they are (puppets of Karma) mounted on a machine.

Chandogya Upanishad


‘Whatever object he is attached to, whatever object he desires, by his mere will it comes to him, and having obtained it, he is happy.


1. ‘These true desires, however, are hidden by what is false; though the desires be true, they have a covering which is false. Thus, whoever belonging to us has departed this life, him we cannot gain back, so that we should see him with our eyes.

2. ‘Those who belong to us, whether living or departed, and whatever else there is which we wish for and do not obtain, all that we find there (if we descend into our heart, where Brahman dwells, in the ether of the heart), There are all our true desires, but hidden by what is false. As people who do not know the country, walk again and again over a gold treasure that has been hidden somewhere in the earth and do not discover it, thus do all these creatures day after day go into the Brahma-world (they are merged in Brahman, while asleep), and yet do not discover it, because they are carried away by untruth (they do not come to themselves, i.e. they do not discover the true Self in Brahman, dwelling in the heart).

3. ‘That Self abides in the heart. And this is the etymological explanation. The heart is called hrid-ayam, instead of hridy-ayam, i.e. He who is in the heart. He who knows this, that He is in the heart, goes day by day (when in sushupti, deep sleep) into heaven (svarga), 1.e. into the Brahman of the heart.

Second Prapathaka
1. The hinkara is the threefold knowledge, the prastava these three worlds, the udgitha Agni (fire), Vayu (air), and Aditya (sun), the pratihara the stars, the birds, and the rays, the nidhana the serpents, Gandharvas, and fathers. That is the Saman, as interwoven in everything.
2. He who thus knows this Saman, as interwoven in everything, he becomes everything.
3. And thus it is said in the following verse: ‘There are the fivefold three (the three kinds of sacrificial knowledge, the three worlds &c. in their fivefold form, i.e. as identified with the hinkara, the prastiva, &c.), and the other forms of the Saman. Greater than these there is nothing else besides.’
4. He who knows this, knows everything. All regions offer him gifts. His rule is, ‘Let him meditate (on the Saman), knowing that he is everything, yea, that he is everything.’

1. The Gayatri (verse) is everything whatsoever here exists. Gayatri indeed is speech, for speech sings forth (gaya-ti) and protects (traya-te) everything that here exists.
2. That Gayatri is also the earth, for everything that here exists rests on the earth, and does not go beyond.
3. That earth again is the body in man, for in it the vital airs (pranas, which are everything) rest, and do not go beyond.
4. That body again in man is the heart within man, for in it the pranas (which are everything) rest, and do not go beyond.
5. That Gayatri has four feet and is sixfold. And this is also declared by a Rik verse (Rig-veda X, 90, 3) :-
6. ‘Such is the greatness of it (of Brahman, under the disguise of Gayatri); greater than it is the Person, (purusha). His feet are all things. The immortal with three feet is in heaven (i.e. in himself).’
7. The Brahman which has been thus described (as immortal with three feet in heaven, and as Gayatri) is the same as the ether which is around us;
8. And the ether which is around us, is the same as the ether which is within us. And the ether which is within us,
9. That is the ether within the heart. That ether in the heart (as Brahman) is omnipresent and unchanging. He who knows this obtains omnipresent and unchangeable happiness.
1. For that heart there are five gates belonging to the Devas (the senses). The eastern gate is the Prana (up-breathing), that is the eye, that is Aditya (the sun). Let a man meditate on that as brightness (glory of countenance) and health. He who knows this, becomes bright and healthy.
2. The southern gate is the Vyana (backbreathing), that is the ear, that is the moon. Let a man meditate on that as happiness and fame. He who knows this, becomes happy and famous.
3. The western gate is the Apana (downbreathing), that is speech, that is Agni (fire). Let a man meditate on that as glory of countenance and health. He who knows this, becomes glorious and healthy.
4. The northern gate is the Samana (on-breathing), that is mind, that is Parganya (rain). Let a man meditate on that as celebrity and beauty.
He who knows this, becomes celebrated and beautiful.
5. The upper gate is the Udana (out-breathing), that is air, that is ether. Let a man meditate on that as strength and greatness. He who knows this, becomes strong and great.
6. These are the five men of Brahman, the door-keepers of the Svarga (heaven) world. He who knows these five men of Brahman, the door-keepers of the Svarga world, in his family a strong son is born. He who thus knows these five men of Brahman, as the door-keepers of the Svarga world, enters himself the Svarga world.
7. Now that light which shines above this heaven, higher than all, higher than everything, in the highest world, beyond which there are no other worlds, that is the same light which is within man. And of this we have this visible proof:
8. Namely, when we thus perceive by touch the warmth here in the body. And of it we have this audible proof: Namely, when we thus, after stopping our ears, listen to what is like the rolling of a carriage, or the bellowing of an ox, or the sound of a burning fire (within the ears). Let a man meditate on this as the (Brahman) which is seen and heard. He who knows this, becomes conspicuous and celebrated, yea, he becomes celebrated.

Sayings of Sri-Ramakrishna

1. Aditya (the sun) is Brahman, this is the doctrine, and this is the fuller account of it:-

In the beginning this was non-existent. It became existent, it grew. It turned into an egg. The egg lay for the time of a year. The egg broke open. The two halves were one of silver, the other of gold.

2. The silver one became this earth, the golden one the sky, the thick membrane (of the white) the mountains, the thin membrane (of the yoke) the mist with the clouds, the small veins the rivers, the fluid the sea.

3. And what was born from it that was Aditya, the sun. When he was born shouts of hurrah arose, and all beings arose, and all things which they desired. Therefore whenever the sun rises and sets, shouts of hurrah arise, and all beings arise, and all things which they desire.

4. If any one knowing this meditates on the sun as Brahman, pleasant shouts will approach him and will continue, yea, they will continue.

Imagine a limitless expanse of water: above and below, before and behind, right and left, everywhere there is water. In that water is placed a jar filled with water. There is water inside the jar and water outside, but the jar is still there. The ‘I’ is the jar.

Think of Brahman, Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute, as a shoreless ocean. Through the cooling influence, as it were, of the bhakta’s love, the water has frozen at places into blocks of ice. In other words, God now and then assumes various forms for His lovers and reveals Himself to them as a Person. But with the rising of the sun of Knowledge, the blocks of ice melt. Then one doesn’t feel any more that God is a Person, nor does one see God’s forms. What He is cannot be described. Who will describe Him? He who would do so disappears. He cannot find his ‘I’ any more.

Water and a bubble on it are one and the same. The bubble has its birth in the water, floats on it, and is ultimately resolved into it. So also the Jivatman (individual soul) and the Paramatman (supreme soul) are one and the same, the difference between them being only one of degree. For, one is finite and limited while the other is infinite; one is dependent while the other is independent.

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That Hinduism has shared her land for centuries with Jains, Buddhists, Parsees, Muslims, Sikhs, and Christians may help explain a final  {Pg73} idea that comes out more clearly through her than through the other great religions; namely, her conviction that the various major religions are alternate paths to the same goal. To claim salvation as the monopoly of any one religion is like claiming that God can be found in this room but not the next, in this attire but not another. Normally, people will follow the path that rises from the plains of their own civilization; those who circle the mountain, trying to bring others around to their paths, are not climbing. In practice India’s sects have often been fanatically intolerant, but in principle most have been open. Early on, the Vedas announced Hinduism’s classic contention that the various religions are but different languages through which God speaks to the human heart. “Truth is one; sages call it by different names.” It is possible to climb life’s mountain from any side, but when the top is reached the trails converge. At base, in the foothills of theology, ritual, and organizational structure, the religions are distinct. Differences in culture, history, geography, and collective temperament all make for diverse starting points. Far from being deplorable, this is good; it adds richness to the totality of the human venture. Is life not more interesting for the varied contributions of Confucianists, Taoists, Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, and Christians? “How artistic,” writes a contemporary Hindu, “that there should be room for such variety-how rich the texture is, and how much more interesting than if the Almighty had decreed one antiseptically safe, exclusive, orthodox way. Although he is Unity, God finds, it seems, his recreation in variety!” 35 But beyond these differences, the same goal beckons.

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I entered. I lost the boundary of my physical body. I had my skin, of course, but I felt I was standing in the center of the cosmos. I saw people coming toward me, but all were the same man. All were myself. I had never known this world before. I had believed that I was created, but now I must change my opinion: I was never created; I was the cosmos. No individual existed.

9. Hinduism Chandogya Upanishad 8.3.2
As one not knowing that a golden treasure lies buried beneath his feet may walk over it again and again, yet never find it, so all beings live every moment in the city of Brahman, yet never find him because of the veil of illusion by which he is concealed.

18. Buddhism. Seng Ts’an, On Trust in the Heart
A moment and an aeon for it are one.
Whether we see it or fail to see it, it is manifest al ways and everywhere.
The very small is as the very large when boundaries are forgotten;
The very large is as the very small when its outlines are not seen.
Being is an aspect of Non-being; Non-being is an aspect of Being.
In climes of thought where it is not so the mind does ill to dwell.
The One is none other than the All, the All none other than the One.
Take your stand on this, and the rest will follow of its own accord;
To trust in the Heart is the Not Two, the Not Two is to trust in the Heart.
I have spoken, but in vain; for what can words tell
Of things that have no yesterday, tomorrow, or today?

Prajnaparamita Sutra
“O Sariputra! Form does not differ from the void, and the void does not differ from the form. Form is the void, and the void is form. The same is true for feelings, conceptions, impulses and consciousness.


2. Buddhism. Sutra of Hui Neng 1
For him who… knows his own mind and sees intuitively his own nature, he is a Hero, a Teacher of gods and men, a Buddha.

6. Buddhism. Sutra of Hui Neng 3
Ordinary men and ignorant people understand neither the Essence of Mind nor the Pure Land within themselves, so they wish to be born in the East or the Western Paradise. But to the enlightened, everywhere is the same. As the Buddha said, “No matter where they happen to be, they are always happy and comfortable.” If your mind is free from evil, the West is not far from here; but difficult indeed it would be for one whose heart is impure to be born there by invoking Amitabha!

10. Buddhism. Mahaparinirvana Sutra 214-15: Parable of the Hidden Treasure
Every being has the Buddha Nature. This is the self. Such a self is, since the very beginning, under cover of innumerable illusions. That is why a man cannot see it. O good man! There was a poor woman who had gold hidden somewhere in her house, but no one knew where it was. But there was a stranger who, by expediency, speaks to the poor woman, “I shall employ you to weed the lawn.” The woman answered, “I cannot do it now, but if you show my son were the gold is hidden, I will work for you.” The man says, “I know the way; I will show it to your son.” The woman replies, “No one in my house, big or small, knows where the gold is hidden. How can you know?” The man then digs out the hidden gold and shows it to the woman. She is glad, and begins to respect him. O good man! The same is the case with a man’s Buddha Nature. No one can see it. It is like the gold which the poor woman possessed and yet could not locate. I now let people see the Buddha Nature which they possess, but which was hidden by illusions. The Tathagata shows all beings the storehouse of enlightenment, which is the cask of true gold–their Buddha Nature.


4. Shinto. Masamichi Imbe, Secret Oral Tradition of the Book of the Divine Age
The Plain of High Heaven is not a specific place localized here or there, but refers rather to a pure state without any anomaly or excess. In terms of the human body, it is a state within the human breast without thought, contemplation, or passions.


5. Jainism. Kundakunda, Pancastikaya 170
One may understand the true nature of the Tirthankara…. One may have interest in and devotion to the scripture. One may have self-control and penance. With all these, if one is not capable of realizing his own true self, to him Nirvana is beyond reach.

Tao of physics
In the framework of S-matrix theory, the problem of whether one should call the resonances ‘particles’ or not does not exist. All particles are seen as intermediate states in a network of reactions, and the fact that the resonances live for a much shorter period than other hadrons does not make them fundamentally different. In fact, the word ‘resonance’ is a very appropriate term. It applies both to the phenomenon in the reaction channel and to the hadron which is formed during that phenomenon, thus showing the intimate link between particles and reactions. A resonance is a particle, but not an object. It is much better described as an event, an occurrence or a happening.This description of hadrons in particle physics recalls to mind the words of D. T. Suzuki quoted above:* ‘Buddhists have conceived an object as an event and not as a thing or substance.’ What Buddhists have realized through their mystical experience of nature has now been rediscovered through the experiments and mathematical theories of modern science.

Tao of physics
At present, physicists are trying to achieve this ambitious aim by postulating several general principles which restrict the mathematical possibilities of constructing S-matrix elements and thus give the S matrix a definite structure. So far, three of {Pg271} these general principles have been established. The first is suggested by relativity theory and by our macroscopic experience of space and time. It says that the reaction probabilities (and thus the S-matrix elements) must be independent of displacements of the experimental apparatus in space and time, independent of its orientation in space, and independent of the state of motion of the observer. As discussed in the previous chapter, the independence of a particle reaction with regard to changes of orientation and displacements in space and time implies the conservation of the total amount of rotation, momentum and energy involved in the reaction. These ‘symmetries’ are essential for our scientific work. If the results of an experiment changed according to where and when it was performed, science in its present form would be impossible. The last requirement, finally–that the experimental results must not depend on the observer’s motion–is the principle of relativity which is the basis of relativity theory.*The second general principle is suggested by quantum theory. It asserts that the outcome of a particular reaction can only be predicted in terms of probabilities and, furthermore, that the sum of the probabilities for all possible outcomes– including the case of no interaction between the particles-must be equal to one. In other words, we can be certain that the particles will either interact with one another, or not. This seemingly trivial statement turns out to be, in fact, a very powerful principle, known under the name of ‘unitarity’, which severely restricts the possibilities of constructing S-matrix elements.The third and final principle is related to our notions of cause and effect and is known as the principle of causality. It states that energy and momentum are transferred over spatial distances only by particles, and that this transfer occurs in such a way that a particle can be created in one reaction and destroyed in another only if the latter reaction occurs after the former. The mathematical formulation of the causality principle implies that the S matrix depends in a smooth way on the energies and momenta of the particles involved in a reaction, except for those values at which the creation of new*See p. 167 {Pg272} particles becomes possible. At those values, the mathematical structure of the S matrix changes abruptly; it encounters what mathematicians call a ‘singularity’. Each reaction channel contains several of these singularities, that is, there are several values of energy and momentum in each channel at which new particles can be created. The ‘resonance energies’ mentioned before are examples of such values.The fact that the S matrix exhibits singularities is a consequence of the causality principle, but the location of the singularities is not determined by it. The values of energy and momentum at which particles can be created are different for different reaction channels and depend on the masses and other properties of the created particles. The locations of the singularities thus reflect the properties of these particles, and since all hadrons can be created in particle reactions, the singularities of the S matrix mirror all the patterns and symmetries of hadrons.The central aim of S-matrix theory is, therefore, to derive the singularity structure of the S matrix from the general principles. Up to now, it has not been possible to construct a mathematical model which satisfies all three principles, and it may well be that they are sufficient to determine all the properties of the S matrix–and thus all the properties of hadrons–uniquely.* If this turns out to be the case, the philosophical implications of such a theory would be very profound. All three of the general principles are related to our methods of observation and measurement, that is, to the scientific framework. If they are sufficient to determine the structure of hadrons, this would mean that the basic structures of the physical world are determined, ultimately, by the way in which we look at this world. Any fundamental change in our observational methods would imply a modification of the general principles which would lead to a different structure of the S matrix, and would thus imply a different structure of hadrons. Such a theory of subatomic particles reflects the impossibility of separating the scientific observer from the observed phenomena,* This conjecture, known as the ‘bootstrap’ hypothesis, will be discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapter {Pg273} which has already been discussed in connection with quantum theory,* in its most extreme form. It implies, ultimately, that the structures and phenomena we observe in nature are nothing but creations of our measuring and categorizing mind. That this is so is one of the fundamental tenets of Eastern philosophy. The Eastern mystics tell us again and again that all things and events we perceive are creations of the mind, arising from a particular state of consciousness and dissolving again if this state is transcended. Hinduism holds that all shapes and structures around us are created by a mind under the spell of maya, and it regards our tendency to attach deep significance to them as the basic human illusion. Buddhists call this illusion avidya, or ignorance, and see it as the state of a ‘defiled’ mind. In the words of Ashvaghosha,When the oneness of the totality of things is not recognised, then ignorance as well as particularisation arises, and all phases of the defiled mind are thus developed … All phenomena in the world are nothing but the illusory manifestation of the mind and have no reality on their own. 3This is also the recurring theme of the Buddhist Yogacara school which holds that all forms we perceive are ‘mind only’; projections, or ‘shadows’, of the mind:Out of mind spring innumerable things, conditioned by discrimination … These things people accept as an external world … What appears to be external does not exist in reality; it is indeed mind that is seen as multiplicity; the body, property, and above–all these, I say, are nothing but mind. 4In particle physics, the derivation of the hadron patterns from the general principles of S-matrix theory is a long and arduous task, and so far only a few small steps have been taken towards achieving it. Furthermore, the theory in its present form cannot be applied to the electromagnetic interactions that*See p. 140 {Pg274} give rise to the atomic structures and dominate the world of chemistry and biology. Nevertheless, the possibility that the hadron patterns will some day be derived from the general principles, and thus be seen to depend on our scientific framework, must be taken seriously. It is an exciting conjecture that this may be a general feature of particle physics which will also appear in future theories of electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational interactions. If this turns out to be true, modern physics will have come a long way towards agreeing with the Eastern sages that the structures of the physical world are maya, or ‘mind only’.S-matrix theory comes very close to Eastern thought not only in its ultimate conclusion, but also in its general view of matter. It describes the world of subatomic particles as a dynamic network of events and emphasizes change and transformation rather than fundamental structures or entities. In the East, such an emphasis is particularly strong in Buddhist thought where all things are seen as dynamic, impermanent and illusory. Thus S. Radhakrishnan writes:How do we come to think of things, rather than of processes in this absolute flux? By shutting our eyes to the successive events. It is an artificial attitude that makes sections in the stream of change, and calls them things … When we shall know the truth of things, we shall realise how absurd it is for us to worship isolated products of the incessant series of transformations as though they were eternal and real. Life is no thing or state of a thing, but a continuous movement or change. 5Both the modern physicist and the Eastern mystic have realized that all phenomena in this world of change and transformation are dynamically interrelated. Hindus and Buddhists see this interrelation as a cosmic law, the law of karma, but they are generally not concerned with any specific patterns in the universal network of events. Chinese philosophy, on the other hand, which also emphasizes movement and change, has developed the notion of dynamic patterns which are continually formed and dissolved again in the cosmic flow of the Tao. In the I Ching, or Book of Changes, these patterns have been elaborated into a system of archetypal symbols, the so-called hexagrams.275The basic ordering principle of the patterns in the I Ching* is the interplay of the polar opposites yin and yang. The yang is represented by a solid line (***) the yin by a broken line (***) and the whole system of hexagrams is built up Change naturally from these two lines. By combining them in pairs, four configurations are obtained, and by adding a third line to each of these, eight ‘trigrams’ are generated:[Image: Hexagrams.][Image: Trigrams.]In ancient China, the trigrams were considered to represent all possible cosmic and human situations. They were given names reflecting their basic characteristics–such as The Creative’, The Receptive’, The Arousing’, etc.–and they were associated with many images taken from nature and from social life. They represented, for example, heaven, earth, thunder, water, etc., as well as a family consisting of father, mother, three sons and three daughters. They were, furthermore, associated with the cardinal points and with the seasons of the year, and were often arranged as follows:[Image: Diagram.]*See p. 108 (276) In this arrangement, the eight trigrams are grouped around circle in the ‘natural order’ in which they were generated, starting from the top (where the Chinese always place the south) and placing the first four trigrams on the left side of the circle, the second four on the right side. This arrangement shows a high degree of symmetry, opposite trigrams having yin and yang lines interchanged.[Image: two regular arrangements of the 64 hexagrams.]In order to increase the number of possible combinations further, the eight trigrams were combined in pairs by placing one above the other. In this way, sixty-four hexagrams were obtained, each consisting of six solid or broken lines. The hexagrams were arranged in several regular patterns, among which the two illustrated on the opposite page were the most common; a square of eight times eight hexagrams, and a circular sequence showing the same symmetry as the circular arrangement of the trigrams.The sixty-four hexagrams are the cosmic archetypes on which the use of the I Ching as an oracle book is based. For the interpretation of any hexagram, the various meanings(277)of its two trigrams have to be taken into account. For example, when the trigram The Arousing’ is situated above the trigram Receptive’ the hexagram is interpreted as movement meeting with devotion and thus inspiring enthusiasm, which Change is the name given to it.[Image: Hexagrams: the Arousing, the Receptive and Enthusiasm.]The hexagram for Progress, to give another example, represents The Clinging’ above The Receptive’ which is interpreted as the sun rising over the earth and thus as a symbol of rapid, easy progress.[Image: Hexagrams: the Clinging, the Receptive and Progress.]In the I Ching, the trigrams and hexagrams represent the patterns of the Tao which are generated by the dynamic interplay of the yin and the yang, and are reflected in all cosmic and human situations. These situations, therefore, are not seen as static, but rather as stages in a continuous flow and change. This is the basic idea of the Book of Changes which is expressed in its very title. All things and situations in the world are subject to change and transformation, and so are their images, the trigrams and hexagrams. They are in a state of continual transition; one changing into another, solid lines pushing outwards and breaking in two, broken lines pushing inwards and growing together.Because of its notion of dynamic patterns, generated by change and transformation, the I Ching is perhaps the closest analogy to S-matrix theory in Eastern thought. In both systems, the emphasis is on processes rather than objects. In S-matrix theory, these processes are the particle reactions that give rise to all the phenomena in the world of hadrons. In the I Ching, the basic processes are called ‘the changes’ and are seen as essential for an understanding of all natural phenomena:


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In totemism a human tribe is joined to an animal species in a social and ceremonial whole that gives them a common life. The totem animal bonds the human members of its clan distinctively to one another, while acting as their mate, friend, guardian, and helper, for it is of their “flesh.” They, in return, respect it and refuse to injure it unless in dire distress. The totem animal serves as the clan’s emblem, and at the same time symbolizes the ancestor or hero whom the members commemorate. It also symbolizes the life force of the species, for the health of which the human members of the totem are ritually responsible. All this springs from the conviction that human beings and nature belong to a single order.

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Many historical religions are attached to places; Judaism and Shinto, both of which began as primal religions, come immediately to mind. No historical religion, however, is embedded in place to the extent that tribal religions are. Two anecdotes, both drawn from the Onondaga tribe of the Hau de no sau nee (the Six Nations in upstate New York), can serve to make this point.Oren Lyons was the first Onondagan to enter college. When he returned to his reservation for his first vacation, his uncle proposed a fishing trip on a lake. Once he had his nephew in the middle of the lake where he wanted him, he began to interrogate him. “Well, Oren,” he said, “you’ve been to college; you must be pretty smart now from all they’ve been teaching you. Let me ask you a question. Who are you?” Taken aback by the question, Oren fumbled for an answer. “What do you mean, who am I? Why, I’m your nephew, of course.” His uncle rejected his answer and repeated his question. Successively, the nephew ventured that he was Oren Lyons, an Onondagan, a human being, a man, a young man, all to no avail. When his uncle had reduced him to silence and he asked to be informed as to who he was, his uncle said, “Do you see that bluff over there? Oren, you are that bluff. And that giant pine on the other shore? Oren, you are that pine. And this water that supports our boat? You are this water.” 6

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In contrast to the historical religions of the West, which are messianically forward looking, primal religions give the appearance of looking toward the past. That is not altogether wrong, and from the Western perspective, where time is linear, there is no other way to put the matter. But primal time is not linear, a straight line that moves from the past, through the present, into the future. It is not even cyclical as the Asian religions tend to regard it, turning in the way the world turns and seasons cycle. Primal time is atemporal; an eternal now. To speak of atemporal or timeless time is paradoxical, but the paradox can be relieved if we see that primal time focuses on causal rather than chronological sequence; for primal peoples, “past” means preeminently closer to the originating Source of things. That the Source precedes the present is of secondary importance……. “For religious man of the archaic cultures,” Mircea Eliade writes, “the world is renewed annually; in other words, with each new year it recovers its original sanctity, the sanctity that it possessed when it came from the Creator’s hands.”8 Altars are erected that simulate the world’s original shape, and the mandating words the gods uttered on the day the world was created are faithfully repeated.

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As the Navajo artist Carl Gorman points out: “Some researchers into Navajo religion say that we have no supreme God because he is not named. This is not so. The Supreme Being is not named because he is unknowable. He is simply the Unknown Power. We worship him through his creation for he is everything in his creation. The various forms of creation have some of his spirit within them.” 13 One can call this pan-or poly-monotheism if one wishes. The fact remains that though primal religions affirm the divine Unity less exclusively, and in some cases seem even to veil it, they contain nothing that is strictly comparable to the anthropomorphic polytheism of the early Europeans. It is just that the holy, the sacred, the wakan as the Sioux call it, need not be exclusively attached, or consciously attached at all, to a distinguishable Supreme Being.This brings us to what is probably the most important single feature of living primal spirituality; namely, what has been called its symbolist mentality. 14 The symbolist vision sees the things {Pg379}
of the world as transparent to their divine source. Whether that source is specified or not, the world’s objects are open to its light.


Tao of physics
Since motion and change are essential properties of things, the forces causing the motion are not outside the objects, as in the classical Greek view, but are an intrinsic property of matter. Correspondingly, the Eastern image of the Divine is not that of a ruler who directs the world from above, but of a principle that controls everything from within:He who, dwelling in all things,Yet is other than all things,Whom all things do not know, {Pg21} Whose body all things are,Who controls all things from within-He is your Soul, the Inner Controller,The Immortal. 5

Tao of physics
The Second Noble Truth deals with the trishna, which is clinging, or grasping. It is the futile grasping of life based on a wrong point of view which is called avidya, or ignorance, in Buddhist philosophy. Out of this ignorance, we divide the perceived world into individual and separate things and thus attempt to confine the fluid forms of reality in fixed categories created by the mind. As long as this view prevails, we are bound to experience frustration after frustration. Trying to cling to things which we see as firm and persistent, but which in fact are transient and ever-changing, we are trapped in a vicious circle where every action generates further action and the answer to each question poses new questions. This vicious circle is known in Buddhism as samsara, the round of birth-and-death, and it is driven by karma, the never-ending chain of cause and effect.

Tao of physics
Quantum theory thus reveals an essential interconnected-ness of the universe. It shows that we cannot decompose the world into independently existing smallest units. As we penetrate into matter, we find that it is made of particles, but these are not the ‘basic building blocks’ in the sense of Democritus and Newton. They are merely idealizations which are useful from a practical point of view, but have no fundamental significance. In the words of Niels Bohr, ‘Isolated material particles are abstractions, their properties being definable and observable only through their interaction with other systems.’ 5The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is not universally accepted. There are several counterproposals and the philosophical problems involved are far from being settled. The universal interconnectedness of things and events, however, seems to be a fundamental feature of the atomic reality134which does not depend on a particular interpretation of the mathematical theory. The following passage from a recent article by David Bohm, one of the main opponents of the Copenhagen interpretation, confirms this fact most eloquently.One is led to a new notion of unbroken wholeness which denies the classical idea of analyzability of the world into separately and independently existing parts … We have reversed the usual classical notion that the independent ‘elementary parts’ of the world are the fundamental reality, and that the various systems are merely particular contingent forms and arrangements of these parts. Rather, we say that inseparable quantum interconnected-ness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality, and that relatively independently behaving parts are merely particular and contingent forms within this whole. 6At the atomic level, then, the solid material objects of classical physics dissolve into patterns of probabilities, and these patterns do not represent probabilities of things, but rather probabilities of interconnections. Quantum theory forces us to see the universe not as a collection of physical objects, but rather as a complicated web of relations between the various parts of a unified whole. This, however, is the way in which Eastern mystics have experienced the world, and some of them have expressed their experience in words which are almost identical with those used by atomic physicists. Here are two examples:The material object becomes … something different from what we now see, not a separate object on the background or in the environment of the rest of nature but an indivisible part and even in a subtle way an expression of the unity of all that we see. 7Things derive their being and nature by mutual dependence and are nothing in themselves. 8

Pg136 Tao of physics
The important point now is that this limitation has nothing to do with the imperfection of our measuring techniques. It is a principle limitation which is {Pg137} inherent in the atomic reality. If we decide to measure the particle’s position precisely, the particle simply does not have a well-defined momentum, and if we decide to measure the momentum, it does not have a well-defined position.In atomic physics, then, the scientist cannot play the role of a detached objective observer, but becomes involved in the world he observes to the extent that he influences the properties of the observed objects. John Wheeler sees this involvement of the observer as the most important feature of quantum theory and he has therefore suggested replacing the word ‘observer’ by the word ‘participator’. In Wheeler’s own words,Nothing is more important about the quantum principle than this, that it destroys the concept of the world as ‘sitting out there’, with the observer safely separated from it by a 20 centimeter slab of plate glass.

Tao of physics
The whole of Buddhist teaching–and in fact the whole of Eastern mysticism–revolves about this absolute point of view which is reached in the world of acintya, or ‘no-thought’, where the unity of all opposites becomes a vivid experience. In the words of a Zen poem, At dusk the cock announces dawn; At midnight, the bright sun. 3 The notion that all opposites are polar–that light and dark, winning and losing, good and evil, are merely different aspects of the same phenomenon–is one of the basic principles of the Eastern way of life. Since all opposites are interdependent, their conflict can never result in the total victory of one side, but will always be a manifestation of the interplay between the two sides. In the East, a virtuous person is therefore not one who undertakes the impossible task of striving for the good and eliminating the bad, but rather one who is able to maintain a dynamic balance between good and bad.

Tao of physics
Looking at the two pictures, a lay person might be tempted to think that the contradiction can be resolved by saying that the picture on the right-hand side simply represents a particle moving in a wave pattern. This argument, however, rests on a misunderstanding of the nature of waves. Particles moving in wave patterns do not exist in nature. In a water wave, for example, the water particles do not move along with the wave, but move in circles as the wave passes by. Similarly, the air particles in a sound wave merely oscillate back and forth, but do not propagate along with the wave. What is transported along the wave is the disturbance causing the wave phenomenon, but not any material particle. In quantum theory, therefore, we do not speak about a particle’s trajectory when we say that the particle is also a wave. What we mean is that the wave pattern as a whole is a manifestation of the particle. The picture of {Pg149} travelling waves is thus totally different from that of travelling particles; as different–in the words of Victor Weisskopf–‘as the notion of waves on a lake from that of a school of fish swimming in the same direction’. 6[Image: a water wave.]The phenomenon of waves is encountered in many different contexts throughout physics and can be described with the same mathematical formalism whenever it occurs. The same mathematical forms are used to describe a light wave, a vibrating guitar string, a sound wave, or a water wave. In quantum theory, these forms are used again to describe the waves associated with particles. This time, however, the waves are much more abstract. They are closely related to the statistical nature of quantum theory, i.e. to the fact that atomic phenomena can only be described in terms of probabilities. The information about the probabilities for a particle is contained in a quantity called the probability function, and the mathematical form of this quantity is that of a wave, that is to say, it is similar to the forms used for the description of other types of waves. The waves associated with particles, however, are not ‘real’ three-dimensional waves, like water waves or sound waves, but are ‘probability waves’; abstract mathematical quantities which are related to the probabilities of finding the particles in various places and with various properties.The introduction of probability waves, in a sense, resolves the paradox of particles being waves by putting it in a totally new context; but at the same time it leads to another pair of opposite concepts which is even more fundamental, that of existence and non-existence. This pair of opposites, too, is transcended by the atomic reality. We can never say that an atomic particle exists at a certain place, nor can we say that it does not exist. Being a probability pattern, the particle has150tendencies to exist in various places and thus manifests a strange kind of physical reality between existence and non-existence. We cannot, therefore, describe the state of the particle in terms of fixed opposite concepts. The particle is not present at a definite place, nor is it absent. It does not change its position, nor does it remain at rest. What changes is the probability pattern, and thus the tendencies of the particle to exist in certain places. In the words of Robert Oppenheimer,If we ask, for instance, whether the position of the electron remains the same, we must say ‘no’; if we ask whether the electron’s position changes with time, we must say ‘no’; if we ask whether the electron is at rest, we must say ‘no’; if we ask whether it is in motion, we must say ‘no’. 7The reality of the atomic physicist, like the reality of the Eastern mystic, transcends the narrow framework of opposite concepts. Oppenheimer’s words thus seem to echo the words of the Upanishads,It moves. It moves not.It is far, and It is near.It is within all this,And It is outside of all this. 8

Tao of physics
In relativistic physics, a new situation arises because time is added to the three space coordinates as a fourth dimension. Since the transformations between different frames of reference express each coordinate of one frame as a combination of the coordinates of the other frame, a space coordinate in one frame will in general appear as a mixture of space and time coordinates in another frame. This is indeed an entirely new situation. Every change of coordinate systems mixes space and time in a mathematically well-defined way. The two can therefore no longer be separated, because what is space to one observer will be a mixture of space and time to another. Relativity theory has shown that space is not three-dimensional and time is not a separate entity. Both are intimately and inseparably connected and form a four-dimensional continuum which is called ‘space-time’. This concept of space-time was introduced by Hermann Minkowski in a famous lecture in 1908 with the following words:The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. 6The concepts of space and time are so basic for the description of natural phenomena that their modification entails an alteration of the whole framework we use in physics to describe nature. In the new framework, space and time are treated on an equal footing and are connected inseparably. In relativistic {Pg165} physics, we can never talk about space without talking about time, and vice versa. This new framework has to be used whenever phenomena involving high velocities are described. The intimate link between space and time was well known in astronomy, in a different context, long before relativity theory. Astronomers and astrophysicists deal with extremely large distances, and here again the fact that light needs some time to travel from the observed object to the observer is important. Because of the finite velocity of light, the astronomer never looks at the universe in its present state, but always looks back into the past. It takes light eight minutes to travel from the Sun to the Earth, and hence we see the Sun, at any moment, as it existed eight minutes ago. Similarly, we see the nearest star as it existed four years ago, and with our powerful telescopes we can see galaxies as they existed millions of years ago.

Tao of physics
The significance of the Avatamsaka and its philosophy is unintelligible unless we once experience … a state of complete dissolution where there is no more distinction between mind and body, subject and object … We look around and perceive that … every object is related to every other object … not only spatially, but temporally…. As a fact of pure experience, there is no space without time, no time without space; they are interpenetrating. 8

Pg175 Tao of physics
In this spiritual world there are no time divisions such as the past, present and future; for they have contracted themselves into a single moment of the present where life quivers in its true sense … The past and the future are both rolled up in this present moment of illumination, and this present moment is not something standing still with all its contents, for it ceaselessly moves on. 11D. T. Suzuki

Pg182 Tao of physics
The bootstrap philosophy constitutes the final rejection of the mechanistic world view in modern physics. Newton’s universe was constructed from a set of basic entities with certain fundamental properties, which had been created by God and thus were not amenable to further analysis. In one way or another, this notion was implicit in all theories of natural science until the bootstrap hypothesis stated explicitly that the world cannot be understood as an assemblage of entities which cannot be analysed further. In the new world view, the universe is seen as a dynamic web of interrelated events. None of the properties of any part of this web is fundamental; they all follow from the properties of the other parts, and the overall consistency of their mutual interrelations determines the structure of the entire web.

Pg186 Tao of physics
In Indian philosophy, the main terms used by Hindus and Buddhists have dynamic connotations. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root brih– to grow–and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. In the words of S. Radhakrishnan, The word Brahman means growth and is suggestive of life, motion and progress.’ 3 The Upanishads refer to Brahman as ‘this unformed, immortal, moving’, 4 thus associating it with motion even though it transcends all forms.The Rig Veda uses another term to express the dynamic nature of the universe, the term Rita. This word comes from the root ri –to move; its original meaning in the Rig Veda being ‘the course of all things’, ‘the order of nature’. It plays an important role in the legends of the Veda and is connected with all the Vedic gods. The order of nature was conceived by the Vedic seers, not as a static divine law, but as a dynamic principle which is inherent in the universe. This idea is not unlike the Chinese conception of Tao –‘The Way’–as the way in which the universe works, i.e. the order of nature. Like the Vedic seers, the Chinese sages saw the world in terms of flow and change, and thus gave the idea of a cosmic order an essentially dynamic connotation. Both concepts, Rita and Tao, were later brought down from their original cosmic level to the human level and were interpreted in a moral sense; Rita as the universal law which all gods and men must obey, and Tao as the right way of life.The Vedic concept of Rita anticipates the idea of karma which was developed later to express the dynamic interplay of all things and events. The word karma means ‘action’ and denotes the ‘active’, or dynamic, interrelation of all phenomena. In the words of the Bhagavad Gita, ‘All actions take place in time by the interweaving of the forces of nature.’ 5 The Buddha took up the traditional concept of karma and gave it a new meaning by extending the idea of dynamic interconnections to the sphere of human situations. Karma thus came to signify the never-ending chain of cause and effect in human life which the Buddha had broken in attaining the state of enlightenment.Hinduism has also found many ways of expressing the dynamic nature of the universe in mythical language. Thus Krishna says in the Gita, ‘If I did not engage in action, these {Pg187} worlds would perish,’ 6 and Shiva, the Cosmic Dancer, is perhaps the most perfect personification of the dynamic universe. Through his dance, Shiva sustains the manifold phenomena in the world, unifying all things by immersing them in his rhythm and making them participate in the dance– a magnificent image of the dynamic unity of the universe.

Pg189 Tao of physics
The tendency of particles to react to confinement with motion implies a fundamental ‘restlessness’ of matter which is characteristic of the subatomic world. In this world, most of the material particles are bound to the molecular, atomic and nuclear structures, and therefore are not at rest but have an inherent tendency to move about–they are intrinsically restless. According to quantum theory, matter is thus never quiescent, but always in a state of motion. Macroscopically, the material objects around us may seem passive and inert, but when we magnify such a ‘dead’ piece of stone or metal, {Pg190} we see that it is full of activity. The closer we look at it, the more alive it appears. All the material objects in our environment are made of atoms which link up with each other in various ways to form an enormous variety of molecular structures which are not rigid and motionless, but oscillate according to their temperature and in harmony with the thermal vibrations of their environment. In the vibrating atoms, the electrons are bound to the atomic nuclei by electric forces which try to keep them as close as possible, and they respond to this confinement by whirling around extremely fast. In the nuclei, finally, the protons and neutrons are pressed into a minute volume by the strong nuclear forces, and consequently race about with unimaginable velocities.Modern physics, then, pictures matter not at all as passive and inert, but as being in a continuous dancing and vibrating motion whose rhythmic patterns are determined by the molecular, atomic and nuclear structures. This is also the way in which the Eastern mystics see the material world. They all emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically, as it moves, vibrates and dances; that nature is not in a static, but a dynamic equilibrium. In the words of a Taoist text,The stillness in stillness is not the real stillness. Only when there is stillness in movement can the spiritual rhythm appear which pervades heaven and earth. 8

Pg192 Tao of physics
Whichever galaxy you happen to be in, you will observe the other galaxies rushing away from you; nearby galaxies at several thousand miles per second, farther ones at higher speeds, and the farthest at velocities approaching the speed of light. The light from galaxies beyond that distance will never reach us, because they move away from us faster than the speed of light. Their light is–in the words of Sir Arthur Eddington–‘like a runner on an expanding track with the winning post receding faster than he can run’.

Pg195 Tao of physics
At the end of the night of time all things return to my nature; and when the new day of time begins I bring them again into light. Thus through my nature I bring forth all creation and this rolls around in the circles of time. But I am not bound by this vast work of creation. I am and I watch the drama of works. I watch and in its work of creation nature brings forth all that moves and moves not: and thus the revolutions of the world go round. 10KrishnaThe Hindu sages were not afraid to identify this rhythmic divine play with the evolution of the cosmos as a whole. They pictured the universe as periodically expanding and contracting and gave the name kalpa to the unimaginable time span between the beginning and the end of one creation. The scale of this ancient myth is indeed staggering; it has taken the human mind more than two thousand years to come up again with a similar concept.

Pg198 Tao of physics
In modern physics, mass is no longer associated with a material substance, and hence particles are not seen as consisting of any basic ‘stuff’, but as bundles of energy.

Pg200 Tao of physics
One of the principal teachings of the Buddha was that ‘all compounded things are impermanent’. In the original Pali version of this famous saying,’ 1 the term used for ‘things’ is sankhara (Sanskrit: samskara), a word which means first of all ‘an event’ or ‘a happening’–also ‘a deed’, ‘an act’–and only secondarily ‘an existing thing’. This clearly shows that Buddhists have a dynamic conception of things as ever-changing processes. In the words of D. T. Suzuki,Buddhists have conceived an object as an event and not as a thing or substance … The Buddhist conception of ‘things’ as samskara (or sankhara), that is, as ‘deeds’, or ‘events’, makes it clear that Buddhists understand our experience in terms of time and movement. 12

Pg206 Tao of physics
The striking new feature of quantum electrodynamics arises from the combination of two concepts; that of the electromagnetic field, and that of photons as the particle manifestations of electromagnetic waves. Since photons are also electromagnetic waves, and since these waves are vibrating fields, the photons must be manifestations of electromagnetic fields. Hence the concept of a ‘quantum field’, that is, of a field which can take the form of quanta, or particles. This is indeed an entirely new concept which has been extended to describe all subatomic particles and their interactions, each type of particle corresponding to a different field. In these ‘quantum field theories’, the classical contrast between the solid particles and the space surrounding them is completely overcome. The quantum field is seen as the fundamental physical entity; a continuous medium which is present everywhere in space. Particles are merely local condensations of the field; concentrations of energy which come and go, thereby losing their individual character and dissolving into the underlying field. In the words of Albert Einstein: {Pg207} We may therefore regard matter as being constituted by the regions of space in which the field is extremely intense … There is no place in this new kind of physics both for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality. 2

Pg207 Tao of physics
In the Eastern view, the reality underlying all phenomena is beyond all forms and defies all description and specification. It is therefore often said to be formless, empty or void. But this emptiness is not to be taken for mere nothingness. It is, on the contrary, the essence of all forms and the source of all life. Thus the Upanishads say,Brahman is life. Brahman is joy. Brahman is the Void …Joy, verily, that is the same as the Void.The Void, verily, that is the same as joy. 3 {Pg208} Buddhists express the same idea when they call the ultimate reality Sunyata– ‘Emptiness’, or ‘the Void’–and affirm that it is a living Void which gives birth to all forms in the phenomenal Physics world. The Taoists ascribe a similar infinite and endless creativity to the Tao and, again, call it empty. The Tao of Heaven is empty and formless’ says the Kuan-tzu, 4 and Lao Tzu uses several metaphors to illustrate this emptiness. He often compares the Tao to a hollow valley, or to a vessel which is for ever empty and thus has the potential of containing an infinity of things.

Pg211 Tao of physics
In the words of lama Govinda,The relationship of form and emptiness cannot be conceived as a state of mutually exclusive opposites, but only as two aspects of the same reality, which co-exist and are in continual co-operation. 11The fusion of these opposite concepts into a single whole has been expressed in a Buddhist sutra in the celebrated words:Form is emptiness, and emptiness is indeed form. Emptiness is not different from form, form is not different from emptiness. What is form that is emptiness, what is emptiness that is form. 12

Pg215 Tao of physics
The probability for such ‘self-interaction’ processes is very high for nucleons because of their strong interaction. This means that nucleons are, in fact, emitting and absorbing virtual particles all the time.*See p. 159 {Pg216} [Image: a neutron (n) emitting and reabsorbing a pion.]According to field theory, they have to be regarded as centres of continuous activity surrounded by clouds of virtual particles. The virtual mesons have to disappear very shortly after their creation, which means they cannot move very far away from the nucleon. The meson cloud is thus very small. Its outer regions are populated by light mesons (mostly pions), the heavier mesons having to be absorbed after a much shorter time and therefore being confined to the inner parts of the cloud.Every nucleon is surrounded by such a cloud of virtual mesons which live only for an exceedingly short period of time. However, virtual mesons may become real mesons under special circumstances. When a nucleon is hit by another particle moving with a high velocity, some of the energy of motion of that particle may be transferred to a virtual meson to free it from the cloud. This is how real mesons are created in high-energy collisions. On the other hand, when two nucleons come so near to each other that their meson clouds overlap, some of the virtual particles may not go back to be absorbed by the nucleon which originally created them, but may ‘jump across’ to be absorbed by the other nucleon. This is how the exchange processes arise which constitute the strong interactions.

Pg219 Tao of physics
The relation between the virtual particles and the vacuum and is an essentially dynamic relation; the vacuum is truly a ‘living Form Void’, pulsating in endless rhythms of creation and destruction. The discovery of the dynamic quality of the vacuum is seen by many physicists as one of the most important findings of modern physics. From its role as an empty container of the physical phenomena, the void has emerged as a dynamic quantity of utmost importance. The results of modern physics thus seem to confirm the words of the Chinese sage Chang Tsai:When one knows that the Great Void is full of ch’i, one realises that there is no such thing as nothingness. 16

Pg238 Tao of physics
The Dance of Shiva symbolizes not only the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, but also the daily rhythm of birth and death which is seen in Indian mysticism as the basis of all existence. At the same time, Shiva reminds us that the manifold forms in the world are maya –not fundamental, but illusory and ever-changing–as he keeps creating and dissolving them in the ceaseless flow of his dance.*See p. 89.(239)[Image: Shiva Nataraja, Brahmanical bronze, South India, twelfth century.]As Heinrich Zimmer has put it:His gestures wild and full of grace, precipitate the cosmic illusion; his flying arms and legs and the swaying of his torso produce–indeed, they are–the continuous creation-destruction of the universe, death exactly balancing birth, annihilation the end of every coming-forth. 4

Pg278 Tao of physics
As in the world of particles, the structures generated by the {Pg279} changes can be arranged in various symmetric patterns, such as the octagonal pattern formed by the eight trigrams, in which opposite trigrams have yin and yang lines interchanged. This pattern is even vaguely similar to the meson octet discussed in the previous chapter, in which particles and antiparticles occupy opposite places. The important point, however, is not this accidental similarity, but the fact that both modern physics and ancient Chinese thought consider change and transformation as the primary aspect of nature, and see the structures and symmetries generated by the changes as secondary. As he explains in the introduction to his translation of the I Ching, Richard Wilhelm regards this idea as the fundamental concept of the Book of Changes:

Pg282 Tao of physics
The bootstrap hypothesis not only denies the existence of fundamental constituents of matter, but accepts no fundamental entities whatsoever–no fundamental laws, equations or principles–and thus abandons another idea which has been an essential part of natural science for hundreds of years. The notion of fundamental laws of nature was derived from the belief in a divine lawgiver which was deeply rooted in the {Pg283} Judaeo-Christian tradition. In the words of Thomas Aquinas:There is a certain Eternal Law, to wit, Reason, existing in the mind of God and governing the whole universe. 2This notion of an eternal, divine law of nature greatly influenced Western philosophy and science. Descartes wrote about the laws which God has put into nature’, and Newton believed that the highest aim of his scientific work was to give evidence of the laws impressed upon nature by God’. To discover the ultimate fundamental laws of nature remained the aim of natural scientists for the three centuries following Newton.

Pg284 Tao of physics
It is evident that the complete ‘bootstrap’ view of nature, in which all phenomena in the universe are uniquely determined by mutual self-consistency, comes very close to the Eastern {Pg285} world view. An indivisible universe, in which all things and events are interrelated, would hardly make sense unless it were self-consistent. In a way, the requirement of self-consistency, which forms the basis of the bootstrap hypothesis, and the unity and interrelation of all phenomena, which are so strongly emphasized in Eastern mysticism, are just different aspects of the same idea. This close connection is most clearly expressed in Taoism. For the Taoist sages, all phenomena in the world were part of the cosmic Way–the Tao–and the laws followed by the Tao were not laid down by any divine lawgiver, but were inherent in its nature. Thus we read in the Tao Te Ching:Man follows the laws of earth;Earth follows the laws of heaven;Heaven follows the laws of Tao;Tao follows the laws of its intrinsic nature. 4Joseph Needham, in his thorough study of Chinese science and civilization, discusses at great length how the Western concept of fundamental laws of nature, with its original implication of a divine lawgiver, has no counterpart in Chinese thought. ‘In the Chinese world view’, Needham writes, ‘the harmonious cooperation of all beings arose, not from the orders of a superior authority external to themselves, but from the fact that they were all parts in a hierarchy of wholes forming a cosmic pattern, and what they obeyed were the internal dictates of their own natures.’ 5Man follows the laws of earth;Earth follows the laws of heaven;Heaven follows the laws of Tao;Tao follows the laws of its intrinsic nature. 4Joseph Needham, in his thorough study of Chinese science and civilization, discusses at great length how the Western concept of fundamental laws of nature, with its original implication of a divine lawgiver, has no counterpart in Chinese thought. ‘In the Chinese world view’, Needham writes, ‘the harmonious cooperation of all beings arose, not from the orders of a superior authority external to themselves, but from the fact that they were all parts in a hierarchy of wholes forming a cosmic pattern, and what they obeyed were the internal dictates of their own natures.’ 5

Pg286 Tao of physics
In the Eastern view then, as in the view of modern physics, everything in the universe is connected to everything else and no part of it is fundamental. The properties of any part are determined, not by some fundamental law, but by the properties of all the other parts. Both physicists and mystics realize the resulting impossibility of fully explaining any phenomenon, but then they take different attitudes. Physicists, as discussed before, are satisfied with an approximate understanding of nature. The Eastern mystics, on the other hand, are not interested in approximate, or ‘relative’ knowledge. They are concerned with ‘absolute’ knowledge involving an understanding of the totality of Life. Being well aware of the essential interrelationship of the universe, they realize that to explain something means, ultimately, to show how it is connected to everything else. As this is impossible, the Eastern mystics insist that no single phenomenon can be explained. Thus Ashvaghosha: {Pg287} All things in their fundamental nature are not namable or explicable. They cannot be adequately expresssed in any form of language. 9The Eastern sages, therefore, are generally not interested in explaining things, but rather in obtaining a direct non-intellectual experience of the unity of all things. This was the attitude of the Buddha who answered all questions about life’s meaning, the origin of the world, or the nature of nirvana, with a ‘noble silence’. The nonsensical answers of Zen masters, when asked to explain something, seem to have the same purpose; to make the student realize that everything is a consequence of all the rest; that ‘explaining’ nature just means to show its unity; that, ultimately, there is nothing to explain. When a monk asked Tozan, who was weighing some flax, ‘What is Buddha?’ Tozan said, This flax weighs three pounds’; 10 and when Joshu was asked why Bodhidharma came to China, he replied, ‘An oak tree in the garden.’ 11To free the human mind from words and explanations is one of the main aims of Eastern mysticism. Both Buddhists and Taoists speak of a ‘network of words’, or a ‘net of concepts’, thus extending the idea of the interconnected web to the realm of the intellect. As long as we try to explain things, we are bound by karma: trapped in our conceptual network. To transcend words and explanations means to break the bonds of karma and attain liberation.

Pg288 Tao of physics
The principal schools of Eastern mysticism thus agree with the view of the bootstrap philosophy that the universe is an interconnected whole in which no part is any more fundamental than the other, so that the properties of any one part are determined by those of all the others. In that sense, one might say that every part ‘contains’ all the others and, indeed, a vision of mutual embodiment seems to be characteristic of the mystical experience of nature. In the words of Sri Aurobindo,Nothing to the supramental sense is really finite; it is founded on a feeling of all in each and of each in all. 13 This notion of ‘all in each and each in all’ has found its most extensive elaboration in the Avatamsaka school of Mahayana Buddhism* which is often considered to be the final culmination of Buddhist thought. It is based on the Avatamsaka Sutra, traditionally believed to have been delivered by the Buddha while he was in deep meditation after his Awakening. This voluminous sutra, which has so far not been translated into any Western language, describes in great detail how the world is perceived in the enlightened state of consciousness, when ‘the solid outlines of individuality melt away and the feeling of finiteness no longer oppresses us.’ 14 In its last part, called the Gandavyuha, it tells the story of a young pilgrim, Sudhana, and gives the most vivid account of his mystical experience of the universe, which appears to him as a perfect network of mutual relations, where all things and events interact with each other in such a way that each of them contains, in itself,*See p. 98. {Pg289} all the others. The following passage from the sutra, paraphrased by D. T. Suzuki, uses the image of a magnificently decorated tower to convey Sudhana’s experience: penetrationThe Tower is as wide and spacious as the sky itself. The ground is paved with (innumerable) precious stones of all kinds, and there are within the Tower (innumerable) palaces, porches, windows, staircases, railings, and passages, all of which are made of the seven kinds of precious gems …

Pg290 Tao of physics
The phenomena involving hadrons are so complex that it is*See p. 274. {Pg291} by no means certain whether the complete self-consistent matrix will ever be constructed, but one can envisage a series inter-of partially successful models of smaller scope. Each of them penetration would be intended to cover only a part of hadron physics and would therefore contain some unexplained parameters representing its limitations, but the parameters of one model may be explained by another. Thus more and more hadron phenomena may gradually be covered with ever-increasing accuracy by a mosaic of interlocking models whose net number of unexplained parameters will keep decreasing. The adjective ‘bootstrap’ is thus never appropriate for any individual model, but can only be applied to a combination of mutually consistent models, none of which is any more fundamental than the others. As Chew has put it, ‘A physicist who is able to view any number of different partially successful models without favoritism is automatically a bootstrapper.’ 16

Pg292 Tao of physics
In the heaven of Indra, there is said to be a network of pearls, so arranged that if you look at one you see all the others reflected in it. In the same way each object in the world is not merely itself but involves every other object and in fact is everything else. ‘In every particle of dust, there are present Buddhas without number.’ 18The similarity of this image with that of the hadron bootstrap is indeed striking. The metaphor of Indra’s net may justly be called the first bootstrap model, created by the Eastern sages some 2,500 years before the beginning of particle physics. {Pg293} Buddhists insist that the concept of interpenetration is not comprehensible intellectually, but is to be experienced by an enlightened mind in the state of meditation. Thus D. T. Suzuki writes:The Buddha [in the Gandavyuha] is no more the one who is living in the world conceivable in space and time. His consciousness is not that of an ordinary mind which must be regulated according to the senses and logic … The Buddha of the Gandavyuha lives in a spiritual world which has its own rules. 19In modern physics, the situation is quite similar. The idea of every particle containing all the others is inconceivable in ordinary space and time. It describes a reality which, like the one of the Buddha, has its own rules. In the case of the hadron bootstrap, they are the rules of quantum theory and relativity theory, the key concept being that the forces holding particles together are themselves particles exchanged in the cross channels. This concept can be given a precise mathematical meaning, but is almost impossible to visualize. It is a specifically relativistic feature of the bootstrap, and since we have no direct experience of the four-dimensional world of space-time, it is extremely difficult to imagine how a single particle can contain all other particles and at the same time be part of each of them. This, however, is exactly the view of the Mahayana:When the one is set against all the others, the one is seen as pervading them all and at the same time embracing them all in itself. 20The idea of each particle containing all the others has not only arisen in Eastern mysticism, but also in Western mystical thought. It is implicit, for example, in William Blake’s famous lines:To see a world in a grain of sandAnd a heaven in a wild flower,Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,And eternity in an hour.294Here again, a mystical vision has led to an image of the boot-strap type; if the poet sees the world in a grain of sand, the modern physicist sees the world in a hadron.A similar image appears in the philosophy of Leibniz who considered the world as being made of fundamental substances called ‘monads’, each of which mirrored the whole universe. This led him to a view of matter which shows similarities to that of Mahayana Buddhism and to the hadron bootstrap.* In his Monadology, Leibniz writes: Each portion of matter may be conceived of as a garden full of plants, and as a pond full of fishes. But each branch of the plant, each member of the animal, each drop of its humors, is also such a garden or such a pond. 21

Pg301 Tao of physics
In contrast to the mystic, the physicist begins his enquiry into the essential nature of things by studying the material world. Penetrating into ever deeper realms of matter, he has become aware of the essential unity of all things and events. More than that, he has also learnt that he himself and his consciousness are an integral part of this unity. Thus the mystic and the physicist arrive at the same conclusion; one starting from the inner realm, the other from the outer world. The harmony between their views confirms the ancient Indian wisdom that Brahman, the ultimate reality without, is identical to Atman, the reality within.A further similarity between the ways of the physicist and mystic is the fact that their observations take place in realms which are inaccessible to the ordinary senses.

Pg388 WR
The religions begin by assuring us that if we could see the full picture we would find it more integrated than we normally suppose. Life gives us no view of the whole. We see only snatches here and there, and self-interest skews our perspective grotesquely. Things that are close to us assume exaggerated importance, while the rest we view with cold dispassion. It is as if life were a great tapestry, which we face from its wrong side. This gives it the appearance of a maze of knots and threads, which for the most part appear chaotic.From a purely human standpoint the wisdom traditions are the species’ most prolonged and serious attempts to infer from the maze on this side of the tapestry the pattern which, on its right side, gives meaning to the whole. As the beauty and harmony of the design derive from the way its parts are related, the design confers on those parts a significance that we, seeing only scraps of the design, do not normally perceive. We could almost say that this belonging to the whole, in something of the way the parts of a painting suggest, is what religion (religio, rebinding) is all about; the theme of at-one-ment laces its every expression.

Tao of physics
At the subatomic level, the solid material objects of classical physics dissolve into wave-like patterns of probabilities, and these patterns, ultimately, do not represent probabilities of things, but rather probabilities of interconnections.

Zen algorythm
“All is one, one is none, none is all.”


The light of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of darkness. 35Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 36If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light…

MATT 6:22-23

The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. 23But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!


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